OBJECTIVES To determine the analgesic efficacy of local anesthetics injected lateral to the seminal vesicles before prostate biopsy, during and immediately after the procedure, because pain is a common side effect of transrectal ultrasound-guided prostate biopsy. METHODS Patients were randomized to receive 5 mL of either 1% lidocaine or sterile normal saline injected (under ultrasound guidance) lateral to the seminal vesicles bilaterally before performance of the prostate biopsies, with the patient and physician unaware of the treatment group. Five minutes after the injection, a series of 12 prostate biopsies were performed. A visual analog scale (VAS) for pain at rest and with activity was obtained before the biopsy (preprocedure VAS) and immediately (intraprocedure VAS) and 30 minutes (postprocedure VAS) after the biopsy. Surveys examining the patients' expectations for biopsy pain were administered before and immediately after the biopsy. RESULTS No significant differences were found between the groups with regard to demographic data, VAS pain scores at rest and with activity, and survey results. CONCLUSIONS Injection of lidocaine lateral to the seminal vesicles before prostate biopsy did not diminish biopsy-associated pain.