Rabbit as an animal model for intravitreal pharmacokinetics: Clinical predictability and quality of the published data.
To study intravitreal dexamethasone and vancomycin concentrations, when used together in patients with suspected postoperative bacterial endophthalmitis. Animal studies had suggested that dexamethasone might decrease the concentration of vancomycin. Prospective randomized clinical trial in a tertiary referral center. Twenty-nine consecutive patients with suspected postoperative bacterial endophthalmitis underwent a vitreous biopsy followed by intravitreal injection of antibiotics (0.2 mg vancomycin, 0.05 mg gentamicin) and 400 μg dexamethasone or placebo. After 3–4 days, the intravitreal injection of antibiotics and dexamethasone or placebo was repeated. In 18 patients, a second biopsy was taken for repeat culture and measurement of vancomycin and dexamethasone concentrations. In 20/29 patients (69%) the first vitreous cultures were positive; the second culture was negative in all cases. Thirteen out of 29 patients received dexamethasone. Dexamethasone concentrations showed an average of 25 ng/ml 3 days after injection, with an estimated half-life of 5.5 h. Vancomycin concentrations in patients given dexamethasone tended to be higher compared with those in the placebo group (P=0.061). Intravitreal dexamethasone does not lead to decreased vancomycin concentrations, when given simultaneously in the treatment of patients with suspected bacterial endophthalmitis.