Effect of interpleural administration of bupivacaine or lidocaine on pain and morphine requirement after esophagectomy with thoracotomy: a randomized, double-blind and controlled study.

The purpose of the present study was to investigate the efficacy of interpleural (IP) analgesia with bupivacaine or lidocaine after esophageal surgery and to measure the plasma concentrations of bupivacaine and lidocaine after intermittent IP administrations. Two IP catheters were inserted percutaneously in the seventh intercostal space during operation… (More)