Suppressor lymphocyte function was evaluated in control subjects and in patients with autoimmune thyroid disease, utilizing an assay in which indomethacin was added to lymphocyte cultures to inhibit prostaglandin-producing suppressor cells. This assay is based on the observation that the addition of indomethacin, a potent prostaglandin synthesis inhibitor, to phytohemagglutinin-stimulated peripheral blood lymphocytes should cause an increase in the incorporation of iododeoxyuridine in control subjects and a smaller increase in diseases with reduced prostaglandin-producing suppressor cells. The addition of indomethacin, 1 µg/ml, stimulated iododeoxyuridine incorporation in phytohemagglutinin-stimulated cultures in control subjects to an index value of 1.43 (i.e., the increment in iododeoxyuridine incorporation with both indomethacin and phytohemagglutinin was 43% greater than the incorporation with phytohemagglutinin alone). The stimulation index was significantly lower in patients with Graves' disease who were toxic and untreated (1.18±0.25, mean ± SD;P<0.003). Patients who were toxic while receiving antithyroid drugs or after radioiodine therapy or patients euthyroid after treatment had a mean stimulation index in the normal range, although the spread of data was very large in these groups. Responses in patients with Hashimoto's thyroiditis were also quite variable. The average response was 1.74±0.72, with 40% of the patients showing a high stimulation index. This study supports our previous investigations in which we used different assay systems for measuring suppressor-cell function in patients with thyroid autoimmune diseases and indicates that a defect in suppressor lymphocyte function is measurable by another technique. The abnormality persists in some cases after metabolic control has been achieved, but usually returns toward normal over months or years.