Bisphenol A exposure, effects, and policy: a wildlife perspective.
In this study, fully vitellogenic oocytes of the longchin goby (Chasmichthys dolichognathus) were exposed to in vitro xenoestrogens such as diethylstilbestrol (DES), bisphenol A (BPA) and nonylphenol (NP) at concentrations of 100 ng/ml in the presence of [3H]17α-hydroxyprogesterone as precursor. The major metabolites produced in vitro are progestogens [17α-hydroxy,20α-dihydroprogesterone (17α20αOHP) and 17α-hydroxy,20β-dihydroprogesterone (17α20βOHP)], androgens [androstenedione (A4) and testosterone (T)] and estrogens [estrone (E1) and estradiol-17β (E2)]. Comparative activities of these chemicals in oocyte steroid biosynthesis showed as follows: NP treatment resulted in clear stimulation of estrogen production, while the opposite occurred in DES treated incubation. Treatment with DES resulted in a higher synthesis of 17α20αOHP. BPA treatment increased the androgen, while estrogen synthesis was slightly inhibited. These results suggest that NP exhibited clearly estrogenic activity on the three chemicals.