Effect of hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) on mortality of artificially reared honey bee larvae (Apis mellifera carnica)

@article{Krainer2015EffectOH,
  title={Effect of hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) on mortality of artificially reared honey bee larvae (Apis mellifera carnica)},
  author={Sophie Krainer and Robert Brodschneider and Jutta Vollmann and Karl Crailsheim and Ulrike Riessberger-Gall{\'e}},
  journal={Ecotoxicology},
  year={2015},
  volume={25},
  pages={320-328}
}
Hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) is a heat-formed, acid-catalyzed contaminant of sugar syrups, which find their way into honey bee feeding. As HMF was noted to be toxic to adult honey bees, we investigated the toxicity of HMF towards larvae. Therefore we exposed artificially reared larvae to a chronic HMF intoxication over 6 days using 6 different concentrations (5, 50, 750, 5000, 7500 and 10,000 ppm) and a control. The mortality was assessed from day 2 to day 7 (d7) and on day 22 (d22… Expand
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