BACKGROUND A study was conducted to investigate the impact of high pressure (450 and 600 MPa at 30 °C) and thermal (72, 85 and 99 °C at 0.1 MPa) treatments on dispersive and aggregative characteristics of almond milk. Experiments were conducted using a kinetic pressure testing unit and water bath. Particle size distribution, microstructure, UV absorption spectra, pH and color changes of processed and unprocessed samples were analyzed. RESULTS Raw almond milk represented the mono model particle size distribution with average particle diameters of 2 to 3 µm. Thermal or pressure treatment of almond milk shifted the particle size distribution towards right and increased particle size by five- to six-fold. Micrographs confirmed that both the treatments increased particle size due to aggregation of macromolecules. Pressure treatment produced relatively more and larger aggregates than those produced by heat treated samples. The apparent aggregation rate constant for 450 MPa and 600 MPa processed samples were k450MPa,30°C = 0.0058 s(-1) and k600MPa,30°C = 0.0095 s(-1) respectively. CONCLUSIONS This study showed that dispersive and aggregative properties of high pressure and heat-treated almond milk were different due to differences in protein denaturation, particles coagulation and aggregates morphological characteristics. Knowledge gained from the study will help food processors to formulate novel plant-based beverages treated with high pressure. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.