OBJECTIVE The purpose of this study was to analyze growth hormone (GH) concentrations in obese women before and after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGBP) and how resulting changes in weight, fat mass, ghrelin levels, and insulin sensitivity affect GH secretion. RESEARCH METHODS AND PROCEDURES Blood was sampled at 20-minute intervals for 24 hours in 10 non-diabetic premenopausal severely obese women before and 6 months after RYGBP. GH concentrations were measured in all samples, and serum ghrelin was collected at five time-points. RESULTS After a 27% BMI drop (55.9 +/- 6.2 to 40.7 +/- 5.8 kg/m2), blunted GH profiles underwent partial recovery. Basal, postprandial, and mean ghrelin concentrations were not changed. A negative correlation was found between mean GH levels and insulin and homeostasis model assessment (p < 0.01). BMI accounted for 54% of GH variation. DISCUSSION Partial recovery of GH secretion after RYGBP-induced weight loss suggests that a blunted secretion is not a causal factor of obesity but a consequence of the obese state and does not seem to be ghrelin-level dependent.