STATEMENT OF PROBLEM How the placement of fiber posts affects the fracture resistance of endodontically treated maxillary central incisors with cervical cavities is not well documented. PURPOSE The purpose of this in vitro study was to evaluate the effect of fiber posts on the fracture resistance of endodontically treated maxillary central incisors with cervical cavities. MATERIAL AND METHODS Fifty extracted human maxillary central incisors were selected and divided into 5 test groups (n=10) according to the restoration strategy: GHT, control group; endodontically treated teeth (ETT) without endodontic posts; GCV, ETT with cervical cavities simulating coronal destruction; GCF, ETT with cervical cavities and carbon fiber posts; GGF, ETT with cervical cavities and glass fiber posts; and GCP, ETT with cervical cavities and composite resin posts. After the fiber posts had been cemented with a resin cement and the foundations had been placed, all specimens were quasi statically loaded at 45 degrees in a universal testing machine until fracture. All specimens were evaluated for fracture modes. The data were then analyzed by 1-way ANOVA, followed by multiple comparisons with the Tukey HSD test (α=.05). The mode of failure was determined by visual inspection. RESULTS The mean ±SD failure loads for the groups ranged from 718.2 ±89.8 N to 943.8 ±93.1 N. In a 1-way ANOVA followed by post hoc testing, GGFs had a higher fracture strength than all other groups (P≤.05). However, GCPs had a lower fracture strength than all other groups. Statistically significant differences were observed among groups (P≤.05), except between the GHT group and the GCF and GGF groups (P=.075, P=.226). All groups except GHT showed complete favorable fracture mode within the cervical third of the roots. CONCLUSIONS Within the limitations of this in vitro study, placement of glass fiber posts significantly improved the fracture resistance of endodontically treated maxillary central incisors with cervical cavities.