Effect of fat adaptation and carbohydrate restoration on metabolism and performance during prolonged cycling.

  title={Effect of fat adaptation and carbohydrate restoration on metabolism and performance during prolonged cycling.},
  author={Louise M. Burke and Damien J. Angus and Gregory R. Cox and Nicola K. Cummings and Mark A. Febbraio and K. M. Gawthorn and John A. Hawley and Michelle Minehan and David T. Martin and Mark Hargreaves},
  journal={Journal of applied physiology},
  volume={89 6},
For 5 days, eight well-trained cyclists consumed a random order of a high-carbohydrate (CHO) diet (9.6 g. kg(-1). day(-1) CHO, 0.7 g. kg(-1). day(-1) fat; HCHO) or an isoenergetic high-fat diet (2.4 g. kg(-1). day(-1) CHO, 4 g. kg(-1). day(-1) fat; Fat-adapt) while undertaking supervised training. On day 6, subjects ingested high CHO and rested before performance testing on day 7 [2 h cycling at 70% maximal O(2) consumption (SS) + 7 kJ/kg time trial (TT)]. With Fat-adapt, 5 days of high-fat… 

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Adaptations to short-term high-fat diet persist during exercise despite high carbohydrate availability.

Adaptations to a short-term high-fat diet persisted in the face of high CHO availability before and during exercise, but failed to confer a performance advantage during a TT lasting approximately 25 min undertaken after 2 h of submaximal cycling.

Fat adaptation and prolonged exercise performance

Fat oxidation during exercise increased after fat-adapt and remained elevated above baseline even after 1 day of a high-CHO diet and increased CHO availability, and this study failed to detect a significant bene fit of fat adaptation to performance of a 1-h TT undertaken after 4 h of cycling.

Effect of short-duration lipid supplementation on fat oxidation during exercise and cycling performance.

The short-term intake of a lipid supplement in combination with a glycogen-loading diet designed to boost intramyocellular lipids while avoiding fat adaptation did not alter substrate oxidation during exercise or 1-hour cycling performance.

Fat adaptation followed by carbohydrate loading compromises high-intensity sprint performance.

The HFD-CHO dietary strategy increased fat oxidation, but compromised high intensity sprint performance, possibly by increased sympathetic activation or altered contractile function.

Effect of short-term fat adaptation on high-intensity training.

PURPOSE To determine the effect of short-term (3-d) fat adaptation on high-intensity exercise training in seven competitive endurance athletes (maximal O2 uptake 5.0 +/- 0.5 L x min(-1), mean +/-SD).

No effect of pre-exercise meal on substrate metabolism and time trial performance during intense endurance exercise.

It is concluded that the consumption of a pre-exercise meal has minor effects on fat oxidation during high-intensity exercise, and no effect on carbohydrate oxidation or TT performance.

Partial restoration of dietary fat induced metabolic adaptations to training by 7 days of carbohydrate diet.

Shift to carbohydrate diet after prolonged adaptation to fat diet and training causes increased resting muscle glycogen levels but impaired leg glucose uptake and similar Muscle glycogen breakdown, despite higher resting levels, compared with when the carbohydrate diet is consumed throughout training.

Effects of short-term fat adaptation on metabolism and performance of prolonged exercise.

Despite marked changes in the patterns of fuel utilization that favor fat oxidation, fat-adaptation/CHO restoration strategies do not provide clear benefits to the performance of prolonged endurance exercise.

Decreased PDH activation and glycogenolysis during exercise following fat adaptation with carbohydrate restoration.

Results indicate that previously reported decreases in whole body CHO oxidation and increases in fat oxidation after the FAT-adapt protocol are a function of metabolic changes within skeletal muscle.

Impact of intensive high-fat ingestion in the early stage of recovery from exercise training on substrate metabolism during exercise in humans.

The results suggest that intensive high-fat ingestion in the early stage of recovery from ET for a few days until the day before exercise was an effective means of eliciting a CHO-sparing effect during exercise by enhancing fat metabolism.



Metabolic adaptations to a high-fat diet in endurance cyclists.

Ingestion of a HFD for as little as 5 to 10 days significantly altered substrate utilization during submaximal exercise but did not attenuate the 40-km time-trial performance.

Effects of diet on muscle triglyceride and endurance performance.

A high-fat diet increased muscle triglyceride concentration and reduced self-paced cycling performance 24 h after the exercise compared with a high-carbohydrate diet and there was not a significant difference before and after a prolonged moderate-intensity cycling bout.

Effect of dietary fat on metabolic adjustments to maximal VO2 and endurance in runners.

Increased availability of FFA, consequent to the F diet, may provide for enhanced oxidative potential as evidenced by an increase in VO2max and running time, which implies that restriction of dietary fat may be detrimental to endurance performance.

Interaction of training and diet on metabolism and endurance during exercise in man.

It is concluded that ingesting a fat‐rich diet during an endurance training programme is detrimental to improvement in endurance, and the study suggests that the decrease in RER usually seen after training when exercising at the same absolute intensity as before training can be prevented by a carbohydrate‐ rich diet.

Effect of carbohydrate ingestion on glucose kinetics during exercise in the heat.

Results indicate that ingestion of carbohydrate, at a rate of approximately 1.0 g/min, increases glucose R(d) but does not blunt the rise in HGP during exercise in the heat.

Effect of carbohydrate ingestion on glucose kinetics during exercise.

CHO ingestion during prolonged exercise results in suppression of hepatic glucose production and increased glucose uptake, mediated mainly by increased plasma glucose and insulin levels.

The effect of different diets and of insulin on the hormonal response to prolonged exercise.

During exercise norepinephrine increases and insulin decreases independent of plasma glucose changes whereas receptors sensitive to glucose privation but not to acute changes in insulin levels enhance the exercise-induced secretion of glucagon, epinephrine, growth hormone and cortisol.

Muscle enzyme activity in humans: role of substrate availability and training.

It is suggested that diet can affect muscle enzymatic adaptation, presumably through an effect on the substrate flux.

Influence of muscle glycogen on glycogenolysis and glucose uptake during exercise in humans.

It is indicated that preexercise muscle glycogen availability influences muscle glycogeneolysis, but not glucose uptake, during exercise, as shown in the results.