Conflicting data in studies of the effect of natriuresis on intrarenal single nephron glomerular filtration rate (SNGFR) redistribution may arise from the interplay of hitherto largely overlooked factors. In the present work, the effect of diuresis induced by saline, glucose or mannitol, as well as the effect of anatomical nephron heterogeneity, were studied. A highly significant positive correlation was found between the logarithm of the urine flow per gram of kidney weight (log V) and the mean superficial (S) to mean juxtamedullary (JM) SNGFR ratio. The rise in S/JM SNGFR with diuresis was primarily a function of decreased JM SNGFR. Total proximal tubular length (TPL) was used as a measure of nephron size. The distribution of nephron sizes was evaluated as S/JM TPL. The effects of urine flow and anatomical heterogeneity on S/JM SNGFR were spearated by means of multiple regression analysis, which yielded the following equation: S/JM SNGFR = -0.049 + 0.179 log V + 0.818 S/JM TPL. Both slopes were highly significant (P less than 0.001). These findings indicate that S/JM SNGFR increases with urine flow, independently of sodium homeostasis, and that anatomical heterogeneity has a marked effect and must, therefore, be controlled. Conflicting data in the literature are harmonized with the present data when appropriate correction can be made for the dimensional factor. There is no evidence that SNGFR redistributions play a role in sodium homeostasis.