Effect of different types of smoking and synergism with hepatitis C virus on risk of hepatocellular carcinoma in American men and women: case-control study.

@article{Hassan2008EffectOD,
  title={Effect of different types of smoking and synergism with hepatitis C virus on risk of hepatocellular carcinoma in American men and women: case-control study.},
  author={Manal M. Hassan and Margaret R. Spitz and Melanie Byrne Thomas and Adel S El-Deeb and Katrina Y Glover and Nga Thien Tich Nguyen and Wenyaw Chan and Ahmed Kaseb and Steven A. Curley and J. Nicholas Vauthey and Lee M. Ellis and Eddie K. Abdalla and Richard D. Lozano and Yehuda Z. Patt and Thomas D. Brown and James L Abbruzzese and Dong-hui Li},
  journal={International journal of cancer},
  year={2008},
  volume={123 8},
  pages={1883-91}
}
The International Agency for Research on Cancer has declared smoking to be a risk factor for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). However, passive exposure to cigarette smoke and use of noncigarette tobacco products on the risk of HCC has not been examined. Therefore, we evaluated the independent effects of different types of smoking exposure along with multiple risk factors for HCC and determined whether the magnitude of smoking was modified by other risk factors in men and women. We conducted a… CONTINUE READING