Dexmedetomidine (Dex) is a novel Alpha 2-adrenoceptor agonist. It decreases sympathetic tone and attenuates the stress responses to anesthesia and surgery. People exposed to cold suffer unpleasant thermal pain, which is experienced as stress and causes the release of noradrenaline from the sympathetic terminals. The present study investigated the effects of cold stress and dexmedetomidine on chronic constriction injury (CCI) model of the sciatic nerve in rats. Sixty four male Wistar rats were divided into seven groups of eight rats each: repeated cold stress (RCS) group, sham RCS group, CCI group, sham CCI group, Dex-treated group received a single dose of Dex (5 μg/kg), CCI+Dex group, CCI+RCS group. Interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor- alpha (TNF-α) levels in the serum were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The mean body weight of CCI, RCS, CCI+RCS, CCI+Dex and RCS+Dex groups decreased significantly compared with pre-values. Dexmedetomidine and CCI caused significant changes of the systolic, diastolic and mean blood pressure. Both RCS and CCI groups showed significant decreased of reaction time in the hot plate test. The RCS and CCI groups demonstrated a significant mechanical hyperalgesia, while pain threshold was increased in the RCS+Dex group. A significant decrease of serum IL-6 and TNF-α was demonstrated in CCI+RCS and CCI+Dex groups. The therapeutic effectiveness of dexmedetomidine in neuropathic pain may be through inhibition of proinflammatory cytokines, primarily IL-6 and TNF-α. Moreover, cold stress may result in increased resistance to neuropathic pain.