Effect of copper fungicide on Colletotrichum gloeosporioides and other microorganisms on avocado leaves and fruit.

@article{Stirling1999EffectOC,
  title={Effect of copper fungicide on Colletotrichum gloeosporioides and other microorganisms on avocado leaves and fruit.},
  author={A. M. Stirling and Kenneth G. Pegg and Alice Hayward and G. R. Stirling},
  journal={Crop \& Pasture Science},
  year={1999},
  volume={50},
  pages={1459-1468}
}
An investigation into the effect of copper fungicide on non-target microorganisms on avocado (cvv. Hass and Nabal) showed that populations of filamentous fungi, yeasts, and bacteria on leaves were at least 10-fold less after a single application of copper than on unsprayed leaves. This detrimental effect of copper on microorganisms on the phylloplane was confirmed in random samples collected from 5 commercial avocado orchards with regular pesticide spray programs but where isolated unsprayed… 

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Early-season sprays of copper, formerly used to control CBD, may have contributed to an increase in disease hazards by affecting the primary level of the pathogen and appears less important than its persistence and its effect on bark colonization by the different fungi.

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Post-harvest control of anthracnose and stem-end rots of Fuerte avocados with prochloraz and other fungicides

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Approximately 40% of the ice-nucleation-active strains of Pseudomonas syringae isolated from asymptomatic leaves and flowers from almond and navel orange trees from orchards with a history of copper