Effect of Conceptus on Transforming Growth Factor (TGF) β1 mRNA Expression and Protein Concentration in the Porcine Endometrium—In Vivo and In Vitro Studies
Homeobox A10 (HOXA10) gene expression was demonstrated in the endometrium of adult porcine uteri, however there is little information concerning the role of this gene in the pig. Objectives of the present study were to examine: 1) the expression of HOXA10 in the endometrium of cyclic and early pregnant gilts; 2) the effect of estradiol (E(2)) and progesterone (P(4)) on HOXA10 expression in porcine luminal epithelial (LE) and stromal (ST) cells in vitro; 3) the effect of E(2) and conceptus-exposed medium (CEM) on HOXA10 and prostaglandin endoperoxide synthase (PTGS2) gene expression and prostaglandin (PG) E(2) secretion from LE and ST cells in a co-culture model. The abundance of HOXA10 mRNA was increased on day 15 of pregnancy in comparison to day 15 of the estrous cycle. Moreover, increased HOXA10 mRNA level was detected in ST cells after E(2) and P(4) treatment. E(2) stimulated the expression of HOXA10 in LE cells cultured on collagen and pre-treated with steroids, but not in LE on plastic surfaces. Addition of CEM to LE cells cultured in collagen-coated inserts of the co-culture system resulted in elevated HOXA10 and PTGS2 gene expression and PGE(2) secretion in these cells, but not in ST cells cultured in basal compartments. ST cells directly treated with E(2) or CEM showed higher levels of HOXA10 and PTGS2 expression. Blocking of estrogen receptors with ICI-182,780 did not influence the stimulatory effect of CEM. We conclude that HOXA10 expression in the porcine endometrium is closely related to the implantation process and stimulated by conceptus products. Moreover, the co-culture system of LE and ST cells is a promising model for the study of endometrial response to conceptus-derived factors.