The effects of colchicine on 17 beta-estradiol-induced water and electrolyte uptake in the uterus of the immature rat have been examined 6 h after treatment with this estrogen. Estradiol stimulates an increase in total uterine Na+, K+ and water while intracellular Na+ and K+ concentrations remain relatively unchanged. Assuming the sodium space is equivalent to the extracellular space, the extracellular fluid compartment increases about 84% in response to estradiol. Similarly, the intracellular compartment increases by about 62%. The uptake of water into the cellular compartment may be a direct response to a stimulation of K+ accumulation by uterine cells. Colchicine inhibits both estradiol-induced rise in intracellular potassium and both intra- and extracellular water.