Effect of coincident enterovirus infection and cows' milk exposure on immunisation to insulin in early infancy

Aims/hypothesis. Insulin autoantibodies appear often as the first autoantibody in children who develop islet-cell autoimmunity. Our recent studies indicate that primary immunisation to insulin is induced in early infancy by exposure to dietary bovine insulin present in cows' milk formulas. As gut-associated lymphoid tissue is also the primary replication… CONTINUE READING