The effect of cholecystokinin octapeptide (CCK-8) and its analogue, ceruletide on release of acetylcholine (ACh) from the cerebral cortex was investigated in urethane-anaesthetized and in unanaesthetized rats. Cholecystokinin octapeptide and ceruletide markedly stimulated output of ACh at doses of 1.5 and 5.0 micrograms/kg (i.p.), respectively. This effect was prevented by proglumide (160 mg/kg i.p.), a specific cholecystokinin receptor antagonist. At doses of 10 micrograms/kg (i.p.) and more, both CCK-8 and ceruletide decreased output of ACh from the cerebral cortex. The decrease was prevented by naloxone (1 mg/kg, s.c.), and replaced by a short-lasting increase. Cholecystokinin octapeptide and ceruletide appear therefore to affect the activity of cortical cholinergic fibres by acting upon both specific and opiate receptors. The interaction between CCK-8 and ceruletide, and opiate receptors either direct or through the release of endogenous opiates, was also demonstrated by the antagonism between ceruletide (1, 5 and 10 micrograms/kg, i.p.) and analgesia induced by morphine (5 mg/kg, s.c.), evaluated by the tail-flick test in the rat.