Effect of composite channel aging on the spectral efficiency of multi-pair massive multiple-input multiple-output amplify-and-forward relay networks
This paper investigates the achievable sum-rate of uplink massive multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) systems considering a practical channel impairment, namely, aged channel state information (CSI). Taking into account both maximum ratio combining (MRC) and zero-forcing (ZF) receivers at the base station, we present tight closed-form lower bounds on the sum-rate for both receivers, which provide efficient means to evaluate the sum-rate of the system. More importantly, we characterize the impact of channel aging on the power scaling law. Specifically, we show that the transmit power of each user can be scaled down by 1/√(M), which indicates that aged CSI does not affect the power scaling law; instead, it causes only a reduction on the sum rate by reducing the effective signal-to-interference-and-noise ratio (SINR).