Influence of apneic oxygenation on cardiorespiratory system homeostasis
In a previous study using tracheal insufflation of O2 (TRIO) at a rate of 2 l/min, we showed that anesthetized paralyzed dogs could be adequately oxygenated for up to 5 h, albeit with hypercapnia (mean arterial PCO2 approximately 160 Torr). To examine the contribution of cardiogenic oscillations in producing this gas exchange, we studied seven anesthetized paralyzed dogs weighing between 19.6 and 25.5 kg and quantified gas transport by analyzing continuous N2-washout curves in vivo and postmortem. We found that cardiogenic oscillations increase gas mixing roughly fourfold and that this value was independent of insufflation flow rate (0.2-10.0 l/min). Our results lend indirect evidence that, with regard to gas exchange, there are two mechanistically different zones in the lung during TRIO. One zone, located in the more peripheral areas of the lung, is dominated by the effects of cardiac oscillations and molecular diffusion and accounts for the increase in gas mixing found in the alive vs. dead dog. A second zone, close to the insufflated jet of O2, uses convective streaming to produce greater gas mixing at higher flows.