Effect of cannabis usage on the oral environment: a review.

  title={Effect of cannabis usage on the oral environment: a review.},
  author={Philip Versteeg and Dagmar Else Slot and Ubele van der Velden and G A Fridus Van der Weijden},
  journal={International journal of dental hygiene},
  volume={6 4},
AIM To evaluate oral environmental changes in cannabis users. MATERIAL AND METHODS The MEDLINE and Cochrane Central register of controlled trails (CENTRAL) were searched up to April 2007 to identify appropriate studies. RESULTS Independent screening of 982 titles and abstracts (MEDLINE-Pubmed) and (Cochrane) papers resulted in seven eligible publications. CONCLUSION Based on the limited data, it seems justified to conclude that with increasing prevalence of cannabis use, oral health care… 

Impact of Cannabis on the Port of Entry-Oral Tissues: An Overview

The literature review has identified a wide range of detrimental effects in the oral cavity when cannabis is used chronically, and the compound 9-tetrahydrocannabinol was implicated with most of these adverse effects.

Chronic toxicology of cannabis

  • A. Reece
  • Medicine, Biology
    Clinical toxicology
  • 2009
Cannabis has now been implicated in the etiology of many major long-term psychiatric conditions including depression, anxiety, psychosis, bipolar disorder, and an amotivational state and there is evidence of psychiatric, respiratory, cardiovascular, and bone toxicity associated with chronic cannabis use.

A critical review of cannabis in medicine and dentistry: A look back and the path forward

The potential effects of cannabis–hemp on general public health and how they could alter therapeutic outcomes are considered.

Oral Health Implications of Cannabis Smoking: A Rapid Evidence Review.

Current evidence shows that smoking cannabis is harmful to the health of the periodontium and how dental professionals should integrate this knowledge into clinical care and dental public health is needed.

The effects of Cannabis use on oral health.

The goals of this review are to elaborate the basic biology and physiology of cannabis in human oral tissues, and provide a better understanding of the effects of its use and abuse on oral health.

Review of Medicinal Use of Cannabis Derivatives and the Societal Impact of Legalization

It would be prudent to wait for studies which prove beyond doubt the advantages of marijuana over the existing drugs and also outweigh its side effects and addiction potential before further legalization of marijuana is considered.

Cannabis and periodontal harm: How convincing is the association?

It is imperative that healthcare professionals understand potential ramifications and health consequences elicited by this substance and the imminent legalization status that may ensue shortly in Canada.

Cannabinoids Drugs and Oral Health—From Recreational Side-Effects to Medicinal Purposes: A Systematic Review

Today, cannabis consumption has been correlated to a higher risk of gingival and periodontal disease, oral infection and cancer of the oral cavity, while the physico-chemical activity has not been completely clarified.

Cannabis: A joint problem for patients and the dental profession

The oral implications of cannabis use are discussed and advice is provided on ways in which dental professionals can approach this sensitive topic and provide support.

Effect of illicit drugs on dental health- A review

The role of the dentist is very important in managing the oral health of individuals given their extensive recreational use, and there is a possibility that dental practitioners will encounter patients who are regular users or past forbidden drugs.



Review of the effects of cannabis smoking on oral health.

There are several cannabis-associated oral effects of importance to the dental practitioner which are reviewed in this article, including xerostomia, severe gingivitis, oral mucosal disease, and an abnormal stress response upon administration of adrenalin-containing local anaesthetic.

Review of the effects of cannabis smoking on oral health.

There are several cannabis-associated oral effects of importance to the dental practitioner which are reviewed in this article, including xerostomia, severe gingivitis, oral mucosal disease, and an abnormal stress response upon administration of adrenalin-containing local anaesthetic.

Pharmacology and effects of cannabis: A brief review

  • C. Ashton
  • Medicine
    British Journal of Psychiatry
  • 2001
Cannabinoids derived from herbal cannabis interact with endogenous cannabinoid systems in the body and cause dose-related impairments of psychomotor performance with implications for car and train driving, aeroplane piloting and academic performance.

Effect of cannabis use on oral candidal carriage.

  • M. DarlingT. ArendorfN. Coldrey
  • Medicine
    Journal of oral pathology & medicine : official publication of the International Association of Oral Pathologists and the American Academy of Oral Pathology
  • 1990
Results showed an increased prevalence and density of C. albicans in cannabis users while there was no apparent difference in the prevalence of candidiasis, however, two subjects presented with oral multifocal candidiasis.

Effects of cannabis smoking on oral soft tissues.

The only significant differences between lesions and conditions noted in cannabis users and controls occurred with respect to leukoedema, dry mouth and traumatic ulcer.

General and oral health implications of cannabis use.

Oral health care providers should be aware of the diverse adverse effects of cannabis on general and oral health and incorporate questions about patients' patterns of use in the medical history.

The health risks of cannabis.

  • W. Hall
  • Medicine
    Australian family physician
  • 1995
Suggestions are offered concerning advice that family physicians can give to their patients about the health risks of using cannabis and likely adverse acute and chronic health effects of cannabis that emerged from a peer-reviewed analysis of the research literature.

A review of marijuana in relation to stress-response mechanisms in the dental patient.

Its vasoactive, cardiotropic, steroidogenic, and enhanced sympathoadrenal stress-response effects justify caution when administering atropine or epinephrine-containing products to the habitual user of marijuana.

Microbial Infections, Immunomodulation, and Drugs of Abuse

The nature and mechanisms of immunomodulation by marijuana, opiates, cocaine, nicotine, and alcohol are described, covering recent studies of the effects of these drugs on immunity and on increased susceptibility to infectious diseases, including AIDS.

The human toxicity of marijuana

Clinical manifestations of pathophysiology due to marijuana smoking are now being reported, including long‐term impairment of memory in adolescents; prolonged impairment of psychomotor performance; a sixfold increase in the incidence of schizophrenia; cancer of mouth, jaw, tongue and lung in 19‐30 year olds; fetotoxicity; and non‐ lymphoblastic leukaemia in children of marijuana‐smoking mothers.