BACKGROUND The purpose of this investigation was to evaluate the regenerative response to deproteinized porous bovine bone mineral (BM) when used alone or in combination with a bioresorbable porcine-derived bilayer collagen membrane (CM) for alveolar ridge augmentation in dogs. MATERIALS AND METHODS The mandibular premolars were extracted unilaterally and three ridge defects were induced in six mongrel dogs. Each defect site was randomly assigned to one of the following treatment groups: BM alone (group A), BM in combination with CM (group B), or neither membrane nor bone graft, which served as a control (group C). No adverse events occurred during the experimental period. Dental computed tomography (CT) scans were taken after postoperative periods of 8 and 16 weeks. RESULTS The percentage of CT-derived bone density in groups A and B was significantly different from that of group C (p < 0.01) at 8 and 16 weeks. The percentage of CT-derived bone density of the dogs in Group B was significantly higher than that of those in group A at 8 and 16 weeks (p < 0.01). Gross evaluation of the 3-dimensional CT reconstruction image of the canine mandibles after 16 weeks of implantation showed that group B had the greatest amount of bone augmentation and excellent thickness of the buccal aspect of the alveolar ridge. CONCLUSION These results suggest that BM leads to more successful bone regeneration for guided bone regeneration procedures, especially in conjunction with the use of a CM as a barrier in order to promote the regeneration of canine alveolar ridge defects.