Effect of a difficult calving on the vigour of the calf, the onset of maternal behaviour, and some behavioural indicators of pain in the dam.

Abstract

The neonate's development and survival is dependent upon being vigorous at birth and receiving appropriate maternal care. However, difficulty at delivery can result in less vigorous offspring and maternal care can be altered, probably as a consequence of exhaustion, pain and human intervention. The first 3h after expulsion of the calf were observed… (More)
DOI: 10.1016/j.prevetmed.2011.09.001

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