Effect of Speakers' Sex and Size of Audience on Heart-Rate Changes during Short Impromptu Speeches

  title={Effect of Speakers' Sex and Size of Audience on Heart-Rate Changes during Short Impromptu Speeches},
  author={S F Baldwin and Theodore Jr. Clevenger},
  journal={Psychological Reports},
  pages={123 - 130}
This study was carried out to determine whether over-all heart rate and heart-rate arousal pattern ate similar for 10 male and 10 female speakers and in speaking situations with both a large as well as a small audience. Equal numbers of male and female subjects were exposed to normal-sized audiences of 21 and very small audiences of 3 during a short impromptu speech, and their heart rates monitored continuously before, during, and after speaking. With limited exception, patterns of heart-rate… 

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