OBJECTIVE To observe the effect of Rougan Huaqian granules combined with human mesenchymal stem cell (hMSC) transplantation on the liver fibrosis in carbon tetrachloride-induced cirrhosis rats. METHODS Sixty SD rats were randomly divided into five groups. The rats in control group received intraperitoneal injection of saline, while those in model control group, treatment group A, group B and group C received intraperitoneal injection of carbon tetrachloride oily solution to induce liver cirrhosis within 8 weeks. Then, the rats in the model control group, treatment group A, treatment group B, treatment group C received vein tail injection of saline, Rougan Huaqian granules, hMSC suspension and Rougan Huaqian granules combined with hMSC suspension. RESULTS The treatment groups had significantly different liver function (AST levels), liver fibrosis index (laminin and HA), hepatic sinusoidal wallsα-smooth muscle actin, IV collagen and laminin protein expression and I, III collagen from the model group (P<0.05). The transplanted cells showed human hepatocyte-like cells differentiation trend in the liver. CONCLUSIONS The Rougan Huaqian granules combined with hMSC transplantation can alleviate liver fibrosis in cirrhosis rats.