Chlorella vulgaris treatment ameliorates the suppressive effects of single and repeated stressors on hematopoiesis
Studies were performed to determine changes in serum macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF) levels and the number of macrophage progenitor cells in bone marrow and spleens of nonimmune and immune mice infected with Listeria monocytogenes. Immunity in mice was established by infecting mice 6 weeks before use with a sublethal dose of L. monocytogenes. When challenged with 10(4) L. monocytogenes organisms, immune mice had an early (12 h) peak in M-CSF serum concentrations. Levels remained elevated for 24 h but fell towards normal by 48 h. By contrast, M-CSF levels in nonimmune mice did not rise until 24 h after challenge, remained elevated for 7 days, and returned to normal by 14 days. The number of macrophage progenitor cells in the bone marrow of immune mice rose slightly during infection, whereas the number in nonimmune mice fell significantly by days 4 and 7. Progenitor cells in spleens of immune mice more than doubled during infection; in nonimmune mice, a sixfold increase was noted. These results indicate that important parameters of monocyte production differ in immune and nonimmune mice during listeria infection and suggest a possible mechanism for differences in resistance to infection.