Effect of Interesterification of Palmitic Acid-rich Triacylglycerol on Postprandial Lipid and Factor VII Response

  title={Effect of Interesterification of Palmitic Acid-rich Triacylglycerol on Postprandial Lipid and Factor VII Response},
  author={Sarah E. E. Berry and Rebecca Woodward and Christabelle Yeoh and George J. Miller and Thomas A Sanders},
The process of interesterification results in changes in triacylglycerol (TAG) structure and is used to increase the melting point of dietary fats. The acute health effects of this process on palmitic acid-rich fats are uncertain with regard to postprandial lipemia, insulin and factor VII activated (FVIIa) concentrations. Two randomized crossover trials in healthy male subjects compared the effects of meals containing 50 g fat [interesterified palm oil (IPO) versus native palm oil (NPO); n = 20… 

Palmitic acid in the sn-2 position of triacylglycerols acutely influences postprandial lipid metabolism.

Fats with a higher proportion of palmitic acid in the sn-2 position decrease postprandial lipemia in healthy subjects, as measured by plasma concentrations of nonesterified fatty acid and triacylglycerol.

Palmitic acid in the sn2 position of triacylglycerols acutely influences postprandial lipid metabolism 1 – 3

Fats with a higher proportion of palmitic acid in the sn-2 position decrease postprandial lipemia in healthy subjects, and Plasma IL-6 increased postpr andially, but IL-8, TNF-a, and E-selectin decreased after all meals.

An Interesterified Palm Olein Test Meal Decreases Early-Phase Postprandial Lipemia Compared to Palm Olein: a Randomized Controlled Trial

Testing the hypothesis that high-fat meals rich in interesterified palm olein (IPO) decrease lipemia and alter plasma lipoprotein fraction composition compared to native palm Olein (NPO) in men aged 40–70 years with fasting TAG concentrations found it to be correct.

Interesterified palm olein lowers postprandial glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide response in type 2 diabetes

This study shows no adverse effect of interesterification on hormones associated with glucose homeostasis notably GLP-1 in T2D subjects.

Palmitic acid–rich oils with and without interesterification lower postprandial lipemia and increase atherogenic lipoproteins compared with a MUFA-rich oil: A randomized controlled trial

Interesterification did not modify fat digestion, postprandial lipemia, or lipid metabolism measured by stable isotope and DGM analysis, and increased proatherogenic large triacylglycerol-rich lipoprotein remnant and small LDL particles following the SFA-rich fats relative to RO adds a new postpr andial dimension to the mechanistic evidence linking SFAs to cardiovascular disease risk.

Effects of Lipid Structure Changed by Interesterification on Melting Property and Lipemia

The confounding of two factors that are both changed by interesterization, TAG structure and solid fat content as the main limitation on understanding how interesterification affects lipemia is emphasized.

Palmitic Acid Versus Stearic Acid: Effects of Interesterification and Intakes on Cardiometabolic Risk Markers—A Systematic Review

Compared with palmitic acid, stearic acid lowers low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol, which is a well-known risk factor for coronary heart disease (CHD), but its effects on other cardiometabolic risk markers have been studied less extensively.

Effects of Plant Oil Interesterified Triacylglycerols on Lipemia and Human Health

The role of TAG structures and interesterified palmitic and stearic acid-rich fats on fasting and postprandial lipemia is provided, focusing on their physical properties and their effects on human health.

Triacylglycerol structure and interesterification of palmitic and stearic acid-rich fats: an overview and implications for cardiovascular disease

  • S. Berry
  • Biology
    Nutrition Research Reviews
  • 2009
It is probable that differences in the physical characteristics of fats resulting from interesterification and changes in TAG structure are key determinants of the level of postprandial lipaemia, rather than the position of fatty acids in the TAG.

Palmitic acid in the sn-2 position decreases glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide secretion in healthy adults

Dietary TAGs with an increased proportion of palmitic acid in the sn-2 position do not have acute adverse effects on the insulin and glucose response to meals in healthy men and women, but they decrease GIP release.



Influence of triacylglycerol structure on the postprandial response of factor VII to stearic acid-rich fats.

Symmetrical stearic acid-rich triacylglycerol with oleic acid in the sn-2 position appears to be absorbed more rapidly than is asymmetrical triacyLglycerols with long-chain saturated fatty acids in thesn-2 positions, which leads to activation of FVII.

Influence of a stearic acid-rich structured triacylglycerol on postprandial lipemia, factor VII concentrations, and fibrinolytic activity in healthy subjects.

The consumption of stearic acid in the form of a structured triacylglycerol leads to less of an increase in plasma Triacyl glycerol and in FVII:c than does a meal enriched in cocoa butter or oleate.

Effect on plasma lipids of interesterifying a mix of edible oils.

This study shows that interesterification of oils used to harden margarines does not raise plasma cholesterol more than does the margarine's constituent fatty acids.

Effects of palm oil and transesterified palm oil on chylomicron and VLDL triacylglycerol structures and postprandial lipid response.

The relationship between TAG molecular structures in dietary fats and in lipoproteins provides new means for understanding the effects of fatty acid positional distribution on human lipid metabolism.

Effect of synthetic triglycerides of myristic, palmitic, and stearic acid on serum lipoprotein metabolism

In contrast to studies involving natural fats, 14:0, fed as a synthetic triglyceride, was less cholesterolemic than 16:0 in a majority of subjects, and stearic acid was neutral compared to 14-0 and 16-0.

Effect of individual dietary fatty acids on postprandial activation of blood coagulation factor VII and fibrinolysis in healthy young men.

The results indicate a lesser increase in FVIIa after the consumption of saturated fats, especially the S fat, than after unsaturated test fats, and this increase was not significantly associated with the level of lipemia, plasma FFAs, or plasma lipoprotein lipase activity.

Use of structured triacylglycerols containing predominantly stearic and oleic acids to probe early events in metabolic processing of dietary fat.

The environment for lipoprotein lipase action in adipose tissue in vivo is likely to be highly organized, such that there is no release of monoacylglycerol, nor preferential uptake or release of fatty acids from chylomicron-triacyl glycerol according to the nature or the position within triacyl Glycerol of the fatty acid.

Acute effects of dietary fat composition on postprandial plasma bile acid and cholecystokinin concentrations in healthy premenopausal women

Testing the hypothesis that fatty acid chain length and degree of unsaturation differ with regard to their influence on the postprandial release of cholecystokinin (CCK) and the subsequent increase in plasma bile acid concentrations in eighteen healthy premenopausal women concluded that meals rich in linoleate are a potent stimulus for CCK release and lead to prolonged elevations of Plasma bile acids.

The effect of triacylglycerol-fatty acid positional distribution on postprandial metabolism in subcutaneous adipose tissue

There was no difference between the specific fatty acid composition of the postprandial non-esterified fatty acid release from adipose tissue after ingestion of the two triacylglycerols, indicating that there was no preferential release of a saturated fatty acid at the sn−2 position.