Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) investigations on the interactions between peritoneal macrophages from Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC)-bearing mice and LLC tumour cells during 21 days after tumour implantation were carried out. The action of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-containing cytoplasmic membranes (CM), from the stable protoplast type L-form of Escherichia coli, on the activity of in vitro phagocytosis was studied; CM induced a continuous increase in macrophage numbers. Activation of macrophage surfaces in healthy and tumour-bearing mice was established. Lamelipods, pseudopods and migration fringes 14 days after CM application were seen. Crater-like cavities deeply in the macrophage cells as well as adherent or prominent engulfed tumour cells within macrophages were observed during in vitro interaction with LLC cells. Macrophages from tumour-bearing mice without CM treatment showed less activation evaluated by SEM during earlier stages of tumour growth. The SEM investigation proved the temporary stimulating effect of E. coli L-form CM on the cell surface activation of peritoneal macrophages in healthy and LLC-bearing mice.