Two groups of 50 male and 50 female Fischer 344 rats were exposed by inhalation to either 5.48 g/m3 (900 ppm) or 1.83 g/m3 (300 ppm) of C10-C11 isoparaffin (IP) 6 hr/day, 5 days/week for 8 weeks to evaluate renal function and histologic effects. Another group of rats (50/sex) was air exposed and served as controls. Urine and blood were collected from 10 male and 10 female rats of each group after 1, 4, and 8 weeks, and following a 4-week period of recovery. The ability of males to concentrate urine was reduced at 4 and 8 weeks of exposure to either level of IP. Following the 4-week recovery period, the urine concentrating ability of the exposed groups showed evidence of recovery. Following 4 and 8 weeks of exposure, glucose, protein, and epithelial cell excretion in urine of males was higher in the exposed groups than in that of controls. Creatinine clearance decreased after 8 weeks in the male high exposure group. After 4 weeks of recovery, urine glucose, protein, epithelial cell exfoliation, and creatinine clearance returned to control levels in exposed male rats. Overall, the effect on kidney function in male rats was mild, with evidence of near complete recovery. Histologic changes in exposed male rats compared to controls included an increased incidence of regenerative tubular epithelia and tubules dilated at the corticomedullary junction with proteinaceous debris in the tubules. No functional or histologic changes were observed in exposed female rats.