Effect measure modification of blood lead–air lead slope factors


There is abundant literature finding that susceptibility factors, including race and ethnicity, age, and housing, directly influence blood lead levels. No study has explored how susceptibility factors influence the blood lead–air lead relationship nationally. The objective is to evaluate whether susceptibility factors act as effect measure modifiers on the blood lead–air lead relationship. Participant level blood lead data from the 1999 to 2008 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were merged with air lead data from the US Environmental Protection Agency. Linear mixed effects models were run with and without an air lead interaction term for age group, sex, housing age, or race/ethnicity to determine whether these factors are effect measure modifiers for all ages combined and for five age brackets. Age group and race/ethnicity were determined to be effect measure modifiers in the all-age model and for some age groups. Being a child (1–5, 6–11, and 12–19 years) or of Mexican-American ethnicity increased the effect estimate. Living in older housing (built before 1950) decreased the effect estimate for all models except for the 1–5-year group, where older housing was an effect measure modifier. These results are consistent with the peer-reviewed literature of time-activity patterns, ventilation, and toxicokinetics.

DOI: 10.1038/jes.2014.46

Cite this paper

@article{RichmondBryant2015EffectMM, title={Effect measure modification of blood lead–air lead slope factors}, author={Jennifer Richmond-Bryant and Qingyu Meng and Jonathan Cohen and Jay A. Davis and David Svendsgaard and James Scott Brown and Lauren Tuttle and Heidi F Hubbard and Joann Rice and Ellen F Kirrane and Lisa C. Vinikoor-Imler and Dennis J Kotchmar and Erin Pias Hines and Mary A Ross}, journal={Journal of Exposure Science and Environmental Epidemiology}, year={2015}, volume={25}, pages={411-416} }