Ectoparasites reduce long-term survival of their avian host

@article{Brown1995EctoparasitesRL,
  title={Ectoparasites reduce long-term survival of their avian host},
  author={Charles R. Brown and Mary Bomberger Brown and Bruce Rannala},
  journal={Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Series B: Biological Sciences},
  year={1995},
  volume={262},
  pages={313 - 319}
}
Few field studies have evaluated whether ectoparasites affect the long-term survival of their adult host, although many studies have examined the impact of parasites on the host’s offspring. In the colonially nesting cliff swallow ( Hirundo pyrrhonota), we manipulated ectoparasite load (of cimicid bugs, fleas, and chewing lice) by fumigating adults and comparing annual survivorship of fumigated birds and nonfumigated control birds captured at the same time. Mark-recapture experiments over an 8… 

Figures from this paper

Perceived risk of ectoparasitism reduces primary reproductive investment in tree swallows Tachycineta bicolor
TLDR
For cavity nesting birds such as tree swallows, the perception of future ectoparasitism risk may be sufficient to induce a facultative reduction in reproductive investment early in the breeding season, before nest-dwelling parasite populations have grown very large.
Group size and ectoparasitism affect daily survival probability in a colonial bird
TLDR
Daily survival of all birds increased with colony size for both parasite-free colonies and those under natural conditions, although the effect was stronger for adults at fumigated sites and for juveniles.
Endoparasite Infection Has Both Short- and Long-Term Negative Effects on Reproductive Success of Female House Sparrows, as Revealed by Faecal Parasitic Egg Counts
TLDR
Investigation of female house sparrows in Norway found that the proportion of eggs in a nest that failed to develop into fledglings increased as the faecal parasitic egg count of the mothers increased and infection by an endoparasite was associated with lower individual reproductive success.
Ectoparasitism and the Trade-Off between Current and Future Reproduction
TLDR
This study suggests that parents pay the cost of ectoparasitism by a reduction in future reproductive success, which may be mediated by the increase in current parental effort, as predicted by life-history models.
Effect of vertically transmitted ectoparasites on the reproductive success of Swifts (Apus apus)
TLDR
The effects of two species of vertically transmitted ectoparasite on the reproductive success of swifts were tested and results are consistent with theoretical models suggesting that vertically transmitted parasites evolve reduced virulence.
Effects of fleas on nest success of Arctic barnacle geese: experimentally testing the mechanism
TLDR
It was found that flea abundance was negatively associated with hatching success and little experimental support was found for changes in behaviour of the breeding female as a possible mechanism to explain this effect.
Ectoparasites and fitness of female Columbian ground squirrels
TLDR
It is concluded that females and their offspring were able to compensate for the presence of ectoparasites, suggesting little or no fitness costs of parasites for females in the different colonies and during the years of the authors' experiments.
Flea infestation reduces the life span of the common vole
TLDR
The results indicate an effect of flea infestation on host life span and strongly suggest that ectoparasites should be taken into account in the studies of host population dynamics.
Life history and fitness consequences of ectoparasites
TLDR
The study suggests that hen fleas play a minor role in shaping the trade-off between current and future reproduction, and the evolution of host responses to current parasite infestation that will maximize lifetime reproductive success.
...
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 63 REFERENCES
Population biology of swift (Apus apus) ectoparasites in relation to host reproductive success
TLDR
Host reproductive success and survival appeared to be independent of the number of lice or louse flies, and neither parasite correlated with the number, body mass, or date of fledging of young birds, nor with the overwinter survival of adults.
Comparative effects of mites and lice on the reproductive success of rock doves (Columba livia)
TLDR
Results for lice constitute the first experimental test of the impact of Ischnocera on avian reproductive success, and reasons for the different effects of mites and lice are discussed, including the relationship of horizontal (mites) and vertical (lice) transmission to the evolution of virulence.
Observations on the ectoparasites of some Newfoundland passerines (Aves: Passeriformes)
TLDR
Ground-feeding passerines showed the highest prevalence, intensity, and diversity of infestation by Mallophaga, as well as the greatest degree of ...
ECTOPARASITISM AS A CAUSE OF NATAL DISPERSAL IN CLIFF SWALLOWS
TLDR
Nestling Cliff Swallows in southwestern Nebraska that were relatively heavily parasitized by hematophagous fleas and swal- low bugs dispersed to nonnatal colonies to breed the subsequent year, whereas nestlings that were comparatively lightly parasitized returned to their natal colony to breed.
Cumulative effects of host resistance on Rhipicephalus appendiculatus Neumann (Acarina: Ixodidae) in the laboratory
The effect of host resistance on the feeding and development of Rhipicephalus appendiculatus, the African brown ear tick, was investigated. In this 3-host species the percentages of larvae and nymphs
Ectoparasitism as a Cost of Coloniality in Cliff Swallows (Hirundo Pyrrhonota)
TLDR
It was showed that swallow bugs lower nestling body mass and nestling survivorship in large Cliff Swallow colonies but not in small ones, and Cliff Swallows were more likely to construct new nests in large colonies than in small colonies, probably in response to heavier infestations of ectoparasites in the existing nests of large colonies.
Fitness Effects of Parasites on Passerine Birds: A Review
TLDR
Infestation by parasites has generally been neglected as a selective agent affecting fitness components in birds, and a large fraction of generalizations on passerine reproduction originate from nest-box studies, where effects of ecto-parasites have been minimized efficiently by field workers removing old parasite-infested nests.
The ecology of ectoparasitic insects.
TLDR
This book is the first to examine comprehensively the ecology of ectoparasitic insects and admits for review any group of organisms whose members follow the parasitic mode of life, emphasizing areas of parasitology which have advanced significantly at the time of publication.
Dispersal of the northern fowl mite, Ornithonyssus sylviarum (Canestrini and Fanzago), and the chicken body louse, Menacanthus stramineus (Nitzsch), among thirty strains of egg-type hens in a caged laying house.
TLDR
From September 1978 through Februrary 1979, dispersal of uncontrolled, naturally occurring populations of the northern fowl mite and the chicken body louse was studied on 30 strains of egg-type pullets reared to 20 weeks old on four growing rations before being housed for egg production.
Infectious diseases, reproductive effort and the cost of reproduction in birds.
TLDR
It seems possible that the interaction between parasitic infection, nutrition and reproductive effort can be an important mechanism in the ultimate shaping of life-history variation in avian populations.
...
...