Ecosystems and the Biosphere as Complex Adaptive Systems

@article{Levin1998EcosystemsAT,
  title={Ecosystems and the Biosphere as Complex Adaptive Systems},
  author={S. Levin},
  journal={Ecosystems},
  year={1998},
  volume={1},
  pages={431-436}
}
  • S. Levin
  • Published 1998
  • Biology
  • Ecosystems
  • ABSTRACT Ecosystems are prototypical examples of complex adaptive systems, in which patterns at higher levels emerge from localized interactions and selection processes acting at lower levels. An essential aspect of such systems is nonlinearity, leading to historical dependency and multiple possible outcomes of dynamics. Given this, it is essential to determine the degree to which system features are determined by environmental conditions, and the degree to which they are the result of self… CONTINUE READING
    1,286 Citations
    Ecosystem Memory Is Emergent from Local-Level Natural Selection
    The complex adaptive character of spring fens as model ecosystems
    • 1
    • Highly Influenced
    Ecosystem spatial self-organization: Free order for nothing?
    • 3
    • PDF

    References

    SHOWING 1-10 OF 54 REFERENCES
    Evolution as a self-organized critical phenomenon.
    • 217
    • PDF
    Resilience and Stability of Ecological Systems
    • 10,459
    • PDF
    Cross-Scale Morphology, Geometry, and Dynamics of Ecosystems
    • 1,366
    A Hierarchical Concept of Ecosystems.
    • 1,773
    • PDF
    BUTTERFLIES AND PLANTS: A STUDY IN COEVOLUTION
    • 3,546
    • PDF
    Resilience in natural and socioeconomic systems
    • 320
    Gaia as seen through the atmosphere
    • 321
    Food Web Complexity and Species Diversity
    • 3,631
    Self-organized criticality.
    • 783
    • PDF