Ecosystems and the Biosphere as Complex Adaptive Systems

  title={Ecosystems and the Biosphere as Complex Adaptive Systems},
  author={Simon A. Levin},
  • S. Levin
  • Published 1998
  • Environmental Science
  • Ecosystems
ABSTRACT Ecosystems are prototypical examples of complex adaptive systems, in which patterns at higher levels emerge from localized interactions and selection processes acting at lower levels. An essential aspect of such systems is nonlinearity, leading to historical dependency and multiple possible outcomes of dynamics. Given this, it is essential to determine the degree to which system features are determined by environmental conditions, and the degree to which they are the result of self… 
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