Economy and efficiency of swimming at the surface with fins of different size and stiffness

@article{Zamparo2005EconomyAE,
  title={Economy and efficiency of swimming at the surface with fins of different size and stiffness},
  author={Paola Zamparo and David R. Pendergast and A. Termin and Alberto Enrico Minetti},
  journal={European Journal of Applied Physiology},
  year={2005},
  volume={96},
  pages={459-470}
}
The aim of this study was to investigate how fins with varying physical characteristics affect the energy cost and the efficiency of aquatic locomotion. Experiments were performed on ten college swimmers who were asked to swim the dolphin kick while using a monofin (MF) and to swim the front crawl kick with a small-flexible fin (SF), a large-stiff fin (LS) and without fins (BF, barefoot). The energy expended to cover one unit distance (C) was highest for BF (C=10.6±1.8 kJ m−1 kg−1 at 0.8 m s−1… 
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