Ecology: The proximate cause of frog declines?

@article{Rosa2007EcologyTP,
  title={Ecology: The proximate cause of frog declines?},
  author={Ines Di Rosa and Francesca Simoncelli and Anna Fagotti and Rita Pascolini},
  journal={Nature},
  year={2007},
  volume={447},
  pages={E4-E5}
}
Arising from: J. A. Pounds et al. 439, 161–167 (2006)10.1038/nature04246; Pounds et al. replyPounds et al. argue that global warming contributes to amphibian declines by encouraging outbreaks of the chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis. Although our findings agree with the climate-linked epidemic hypothesis, this pathogen is probably not the only proximate factor in such cases: in the Trasimeno Lake area of Umbria in central Italy, for example, the water frog Rana lessonae first… 
Global warming and amphibian losses; The proximate cause of frog declines? (Reply)
TLDR
Here it is shown why the working model underlying the test for a link between global warming and amphibian disappearances was appropriate and the complexity of the imminent threat to species survival that results as global warming conspires with various other agents is highlighted.
Evaluating the links between climate, disease spread, and amphibian declines
TLDR
It is shown that there is spatial structure to the timing of Atelopus spp.
Global warming and amphibian extinctions in eastern Australia
TLDR
Temperature data for eastern Australia shows support for a modified version of the warm-year hypothesis, whereby frog declines were likely to occur following three consecutive years of unusually warm weather, and this trend was apparent only at tropical latitudes.
Effects of temperature and hydric environment on survival of the Panamanian Golden Frog infected with a pathogenic chytrid fungus.
TLDR
Data do not support the contention that rising global temperatures are necessary to cause the death of amphibians infected with this pathogen because the pathogen was equally lethal at 17 as at 23 °C, and frogs at the warmer temperature lived significantly longer than those at the cooler one.
Ecophysiology meets conservation: understanding the role of disease in amphibian population declines
  • A. Blaustein, S. Gervasi, G. Xie
  • Biology, Environmental Science
    Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences
  • 2012
TLDR
The importance of understanding the outcome of infection and disease in the context of host ecophysiology using amphibians as a model system is highlighted and links between environmental stress, endocrine–immune interactions, disease and climate change are reviewed.
Host-pathogen metapopulation dynamics suggest high elevation refugia for boreal toads.
TLDR
Evidence is found that boreal toad extinction risk was lowest at high elevations where temperatures may be suboptimal for Bd growth and where small borealToad populations may be below the threshold needed for efficient pathogen transmission.
Climate change, chytridiomycosis or condition: an experimental test of amphibian survival
TLDR
It is concluded that the survival of a cohort of overwintering toadlets is primarily driven by patterns of growth during the larval period rather than winter temperature or infectious disease.
Population and disease dynamics of the amphibian chytrid fungus in the stream-associated frog Litoria rheocola
TLDR
There was a significant interaction between the effects of season and site type on the prevalence of Bd in tadpoles, and infection persisted throughout summer and winter in populations at high elevations.
...
1
2
3
4
5
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 15 REFERENCES
Climate change and outbreaks of amphibian chytridiomycosis in a montane area of Central Spain; is there a link?
TLDR
This analysis uses long-term observations on amphibian population dynamics in the Peñalara Natural Park, Spain, to investigate the link between climate change and chytridiomycosis and shows that rising temperature is linked to the occurrence of chyTrid-related disease, consistent with theChytrid-thermal-optimum hypothesis.
Widespread amphibian extinctions from epidemic disease driven by global warming
TLDR
It is shown that a recent mass extinction associated with pathogen outbreaks is tied to global warming, and it is proposed that temperatures at many highland localities are shifting towards the growth optimum of Batrachochytrium, thus encouraging outbreaks.
Emerging infectious disease as a proximate cause of amphibian mass mortality.
TLDR
It is indicated that chytridiomycosis causes high mortality in post-metamorphic R. muscosa population declines, and that the disease threatens this species with extirpation at numerous sites in California's Sierra Nevada.
Linking global warming to amphibian declines through its effects on female body condition and survivorship
TLDR
Climate warming can act on wild temperate zone amphibians by deleteriously affecting their physiology, during and after hibernation, causing increased female mortality rates and decreased fecundity in survivors.
AMPHIBIAN POPULATION DECLINES AT SAVANNAH RIVER SITE ARE LINKED TO CLIMATE, NOT CHYTRIDIOMYCOSIS
TLDR
It is demonstrated that the presence of B. dendrobatidis in amphibian communities where some species are declining does not always implicate chytrids as a cause of the decline, and the use of archived museum specimens and long-term population monitoring in studying the host-parasite ecology of emerging diseases is demonstrated.
Complex causes of amphibian population declines
TLDR
Climate-induced reductions in water depth at oviposition sites have caused high mortality of embryos by increasing their exposure to UV-B radiation and, consequently, their vulnerability to infection, indicating the role of large-scale climatic patterns involving the tropical Pacific.
Emerging infectious disease and the loss of biodiversity in a Neotropical amphibian community.
  • K. Lips, Forrest Brem, J. P. Collins
  • Environmental Science, Biology
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
  • 2006
TLDR
An outbreak of chytridiomycosis in Panama is described and it is argued that this infectious disease has played an important role in amphibian population declines and the high virulence and large number of potential hosts of this emerging infectious disease threaten global amphibian diversity.
Evidence of Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis Infection in Water Frogs of the Rana esculenta Complex in Central Italy
TLDR
Histological, immunohistochemical, ultrastructural, and molecular analyses demonstrated for the first time the presence of the Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis in this complex of water frogs of the Rana esculenta complex in agricultural areas of Umbria, central Italy.
The Pathogen of Frogs Amphibiocystidium ranae Is a Member of the Order Dermocystida in the Class Mesomycetozoea
TLDR
The phylogenetic analysis placed this pathogen of frogs as the sister group to the genus Dermocystidium and closely related to Rhinosporidium, which strongly supported the placement of the genus Amphibiocystidia within the mesomycetozoeans, which is in agreement with the phenotypic features that A. ranae shares with the other members of this class.
Parasitism by Dermocystidium ranae in a population of Rana esculenta complex in Central Italy and description of Amphibiocystidium n. gen.
TLDR
It is concluded that Dermosporidium multigranulare Broz & Kulda, 1954 is synonymous with Dermocystidium ranae Guyénot & Naville, 1922 and, due to lack of sufficient differences between genera and significant dissimilarities with fish Dermcystidium spp.
...
1
2
...