Ecology: Is speciation driven by species diversity?

  title={Ecology: Is speciation driven by species diversity?},
  author={Carlos Daniel Cadena and Robert E. Ricklefs and Iv{\'a}n Jim{\'e}nez and Eldredge Bermingham},
Arising from: B. C. Emerson & N. Kolm 434, 1015–1017 (2005); B. C. Emerson & N. Kolm replyEmerson and Kolm show that the proportion of species endemic to an island is positively related to its species richness and, assuming that endemism indexes speciation rate, they infer that greater species diversity accelerates diversification. Here we demonstrate that the same correlation between species richness and percentage endemism can arise even if within-island speciation is negligible, particularly… 

Why are diversity and endemism Linked on islands

It is demonstrated that a positive correlation between diversity and endemism is an expected outcome of island colonization, and that intrinsic variation among species and islands can amplify the magnitude of that correlation.

Speciation and endemism under the model of island biogeography.

It is concluded that, although the model leads to an apparent positive relationship between percentage endemism and species diversity on an island, this positive endemics-diversity relationship is not necessarily driven by speciation.

Does species diversity really drive speciation

It is shown that the statistical artefact, which happens when both species richness and endemism depend on attributes of islands that influence the average age of resident populations and reduce extinction rates, can occur more generally for any type of abiotic variable that influences bothspecies richness and speciation or extinction rates.

Species diversity can drive speciation: comment.

It is shown that the observed trends in the distribution of endemics within these two archipelagos are in fact consistent with null predictions, and this findings undermine the validity of the "diversity-driven diversi fication" hypothesis.

The relationship between proportion of endemics and species diversity on islands: expectations from a null model

The null model presented here is constructed as apresence/absence matrix and shows with a null model that therelationship can arise by chance alone through stochasticcolonizations and extinctions; however, their null model didn’t incorporate speciation, extinction, and inter-islandcolonization.

Recurrent speciation rates on islands decline with species number

According to these analyses, the number of species can be stabilized at a finite level, even in the absence of extinction.

The effects of island ontogeny on species diversity and phylogeny

A parsimonious island-centric model that integrates phylogeny and ontogeny into island biogeography and can incorporate a negative feedback of diversity on species origination is presented and it is found that branching times of in situ radiations can be informative of an island's ontogenetic stage.

Diversity regulation at macro-scales: species richness on oceanic archipelagos

An unexpected parallel scaling of species richness of four taxa with area and number of islands for the major oceanic archipelagos of the globe is demonstrated, indicating that similar mechanisms have created variation in diversity.

A unified model of island biogeography sheds light on the zone of radiation.

It is argued that a paucity of data and theory on species abundances on isolated islands highlights the need for island biogeography to be reconnected with mainstream ecology.

A complex speciation–richness relationship in a simple neutral model

This framework shows how a simple neutral model can be combined with network theory to reveal complex relationships between speciation, richness, and the spatial organization of populations.



Species diversity can drive speciation

This work uses data for plants and arthropods of the volcanic archipelagos of the Canary and Hawaiian Islands to address whether there is a positive relationship between species diversity and rate of diversification and test the prediction that this increases with increasing species number.

Analysis of an evolutionary species–area relationship

It is shown that Anolis lizards on Caribbean islands meet several expectations of the evolutionary theory, and the slope of the species–area relationship jumps sharply above the threshold of within-island speciation.


A population genetic model of island biogeography that incorporates island colonization, migration of individuals from the mainland, and extinction of island populations is derived and predicts that populations on large islands should be on average more genetically divergent from mainland source populations than those on small islands.

Diversity, Endemism, and Age Distributions in Macroevolutionary Sources and Sinks

A dynamic model is developed that allows for direct tests of hypotheses about regional rates of taxon origination, extinction, and dispersal using information on ages and current distributions of taxa and concludes that diversity in polar regions predominantly reflects dispersal ofTaxa that evolved elsewhere rather than in situ origination‐extinction dynamics.


  • B. EmersonP. Oromí
  • Biology, Environmental Science
    Evolution; international journal of organic evolution
  • 2005
The phylogencetic relationships of species inhabiting the younger islands of EI hierro and LaPalma indicate that coloniztion events between islands have probably been a significant factor in the evolutionary history of the Canary Island species assemblage.

Age and rate of diversification of the Hawaiian silversword alliance (Compositae).

  • B. G. BaldwinM. Sanderson
  • Environmental Science
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
  • 1998
This work took advantage of rate-constant rDNA sequence evolution and an "external" calibration using paleoclimatic and fossil data to determine the maximum age and minimum diversification rate of the Hawaiian silversword alliance (Compositae), a textbook example of insular adaptive radiation in plants.

Testing macro–evolutionary models using incomplete molecular phylogenies

  • O. PybusP. Harvey
  • Biology
    Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Series B: Biological Sciences
  • 2000
New statistical methods are developed and used to infer past patterns of speciation and extinction from molecular phylogenies that suggest that, in some cases, speciation rates have decreased through time.

The Theory of Island Biogeography

Preface to the Princeton Landmarks in Biology Edition vii Preface xi Symbols Used xiii 1. The Importance of Islands 3 2. Area and Number of Speicies 8 3. Further Explanations of the Area-Diversity

History and the Species‐Area Relationship in Lesser Antillean Birds

Historical analysis of the Lesser Antillean avifauna supports the dynamic concept of island biogeography of MacArthur and Wilson, rather than the more static view of David Lack, in that colonists exhibit dispersal limitation and extinction plays a role in shaping patterns of diversity.

Birds of the West Indies

Overall, changes in Iceland’s bird world have already been rather dramatic, and it is shown that since 1960, three species get added to the Icelandic species list annually, showing major changes in the North Atlantic ecosystems.