Ecological mechanisms and prospects for utilization of toxins from parasitic hymenopterans

  title={Ecological mechanisms and prospects for utilization of toxins from parasitic hymenopterans},
  author={Xiaoyi Wang and Zhong-qi Yang},
  journal={Frontiers of Forestry in China},
Insects in the order Hymenoptera defend themselves, attack prey and regulate hosts using toxins that are effective in small quantities. In this study, advances in the researches on parasitic hymenopteran toxins are summarized in terms of the production, categories, components, properties, ecological functions and mechanisms. The glands that produce venoms derive from the ectoderm tissue and evolve from the accessory glands of the reproductive system. Venoms are excreted by the poison gland or… 
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A fundamental paradox underlies compatible parasi­ tic relationships including host-parasitoid interactions, i.e. the compatible parasitoid is not eliminated by the cellular immune defenses that protect the host from other incompatible parasitoids.
Host Regulation by Insect Parasitoids
The physiological and biochemical changes that occur after parasitoidism are described and include changes in hemolymph solutes, proteins, carbohydrates, lipids, nitrogen metabolism and excretion, as well as changes in select tissues including the endocrine and reproductive system of the host.
Host Suitability for Insect Parasitoids
The coevolution of the parasitoid and host has resulted in a number of unique associations and whether a parasitoids is able to develop within a host may depend on the ability or inability of the parasites to regulate the host's physiology.
Venom of Catolaccus grandis (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) and Its Role in Parasitoid Development and Host Regulation
The effect of the venom of the ectoparasitoid Catolaccusgrandis (Burks) on boll weevil, Anthonomus grandis grandis Boheman growth, development, and survival, and parasitoid development were investigated and it was shown that 81.4% of parasitized weevils were not paralyzed.
Host regulation effects of ovary fluid and venom of Aphidius ervi (Hymenoptera: Braconidae).
Comparative studies on the protein composition of hymenopteran venom reservoirs.