Ecological mechanisms and prospects for utilization of toxins from parasitic hymenopterans

@article{Wang2008EcologicalMA,
  title={Ecological mechanisms and prospects for utilization of toxins from parasitic hymenopterans},
  author={Xiaoyi Wang and Zhong-qi Yang},
  journal={Frontiers of Forestry in China},
  year={2008},
  volume={3},
  pages={1-9}
}
Insects in the order Hymenoptera defend themselves, attack prey and regulate hosts using toxins that are effective in small quantities. In this study, advances in the researches on parasitic hymenopteran toxins are summarized in terms of the production, categories, components, properties, ecological functions and mechanisms. The glands that produce venoms derive from the ectoderm tissue and evolve from the accessory glands of the reproductive system. Venoms are excreted by the poison gland or… 
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