Ecological Society of America IS IT TIME TO BURY THE ECOSYSTEM CONCEPT ? ( WITH FULL MILITARY HONORS , OF COURSE ! )

The ecosystem concept has become a standard paradigm for studying ecological systems. Underlying the ecosystem concept is a ‘‘machine analogy’’ derived from Systems Analysis. This analogy is difficult to reconcile with our current understanding of ecological systems as metastable adaptive systems that may operate far from equilibrium. This paper discusses… (More)