Ecological Imperialism and the Global Metabolic Rift

@article{Clark2009EcologicalIA,
  title={Ecological Imperialism and the Global Metabolic Rift},
  author={Brett Clark and John Bellamy Foster},
  journal={International Journal of Comparative Sociology},
  year={2009},
  volume={50},
  pages={311 - 334}
}
Transfers in economic values are shadowed in complex ways by real material-ecological flows that transform ecological relations between city and country, and between the core and periphery. Directing material flows is a vital part of intercapitalist competition. Ecological imperialism creates asymmetries in the exploitation of the environment, unequal exchange, and a global metabolic rift. The 19th-century guano/nitrates trade illustrates the emergence of a global metabolic rift, as guano and… 

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