Ecological Costs of Livestock Grazing in Western North America

  title={Ecological Costs of Livestock Grazing in Western North America},
  author={Thomas Lowe Fleischner},
  journal={Conservation Biology},
  • T. Fleischner
  • Published 1 September 1994
  • Geography
  • Conservation Biology
Livestock grazing is the most widespread land management practice in western North America. Seventy percent of the western United States is grazed, including wilderness areas, wildlife refuges, national forests, and even some national parks. The ecological costs of this nearly ubiquitous form of land use can be dramatic. Examples of such costs include loss of biodiversity; lowering of population densities for a wide variety of taxa; disruption of ecosystem functions, including nutrient cycling… 

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