Echographic detection of latent severe thrombotic stenosis of the superior vena cava and innominate vein in patients with a pacemaker: integrated diagnosis using sonography, pulse Doppler, and color flow.

Abstract

Thrombosis of the innominate vein and SVC is a serious complication in patients with pacemakers, inducing pulmonary embolism or SVC syndrome. Venography is the definitive method for its diagnosis; however, it is too invasive for related studies. The purpose of this study was to validate sonography, pulse Doppler, and color flow in detecting noninvasively innominate vein or SVC thrombosis in patients with pacemakers. In 53 patients with pacemakers, the 1 severe SVC stenosis and 18 severe innominate vein stenoses due to thrombosis were diagnosed by digital subtraction angiography. Sonography accurately showed the severe SVC stenosis due to thrombosis, but had limitations on the innominate vein thrombosis. Color flow demonstrated mosaic flow, indicating poststenotic turbulence due to stenosis of the innominate vein and SVC caused by thrombosis in 15 of 16 patients, and pulse Doppler disclosed absence of flow due to complete occlusion of the innominate vein in 2 of 2 patients. Sensitivity and specificity for detecting severe innominate vein stenosis due to thrombosis using combined color flow and pulse Doppler was 94% and 100%, respectively. In conclusion, sonography, pulse Doppler, and color flow allow accurate detection of severe innominate vein or SVC stenosis due to thrombosis, and are therefore useful for the follow-up of patients with a pacemaker.

Cite this paper

@article{Nishino1997EchographicDO, title={Echographic detection of latent severe thrombotic stenosis of the superior vena cava and innominate vein in patients with a pacemaker: integrated diagnosis using sonography, pulse Doppler, and color flow.}, author={Masami Nishino and Jun Tanouchi and Takaaki Ito and Kouji Tanaka and Takahiko Aoyama and Mineaki Kitamura and Tomoo Nakagawa and Jun Kato and Yuko Yamada}, journal={Pacing and clinical electrophysiology : PACE}, year={1997}, volume={20 4 Pt 1}, pages={946-52} }