Echinoderms from the Lower Devonian (Emsian) of Bolivia (Malvinokaffric Realm)

@inproceedings{Thompson2013EchinodermsFT,
  title={Echinoderms from the Lower Devonian (Emsian) of Bolivia (Malvinokaffric Realm)},
  author={Jeffrey R. Thompson and William I. Ausich and Legrand Smith},
  booktitle={Journal of Paleontology},
  year={2013}
}
Abstract Crinoid faunas from the Lower Devonian of South America are poorly known. Two new taxa are described from the Emsian Icla Formation at Cerro Kochis in the Cochabamba Department: the rhodocrinitid, Lutocrinus boliviaensis n. gen. n. sp. and Griphocrinus pirovanoi n. sp. Two additional camerates are reported from the Emsian Belèn Formation of the Altiplano region in the La Paz Department, including Ctenocrinus branisai n. sp. and Boliviacrinus isaacsoni McIntosh, 1988. In addition, a… 
Crinoids from the Lower (Pragian–Emsian) and Middle (early Eifelian) Devonian of Bolivia (Icla and Belén formations, Malvinokaffric Realm)
TLDR
Data demonstrate that the Malvinokaffric crinoid fauna in Bolivia has a mixed origin, with forms that arrived in South America from Europe and United States of America during the late Silurian or earliest Devonian, as well as a local stock, which evolved to highly endemic lineages.
The Malvinokaffric Realm in the Early-Middle Devonian of South Africa
  • C. Penn-Clarke
  • Geography, Environmental Science
    Journal of African Earth Sciences
  • 2019
Alguns Crinoides da Formação Ponta Grossa e suas afinidades paleobiogeográficas (Devoniano Inferior, Bacia do Paraná, Brasil) Some Crinoids of the Ponta Grossa Formation and paleobiogeographic affinities (Early Devonian, Parana Basin, Brazil)
The first description and illustration of the echinoderms from Ponta Grossa Formation was presented by John Mason Clarke, in the first Monograph of the Geological and Mineralogical Survey of Brazil.

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