Echinocandins: The Expanding Antifungal Armamentarium.

  title={Echinocandins: The Expanding Antifungal Armamentarium.},
  author={Daniel Aguilar-zapata and Ruta Petraitiene and Vidmantas Petraitis},
  journal={Clinical infectious diseases : an official publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America},
  volume={61 Suppl 6},
The echinocandins are large lipopeptide molecules that, since their discovery approximately 41 years ago, have emerged as important additions to the expanding armamentarium against invasive fungal diseases. Echinocandins exert in vitro and in vivo fungicidal action against most Candida species and fungistatic action against Aspergillus species. However, the population of patients at risk for developing invasive fungal infections continues to increase. New therapeutic strategies using… 

Figures and Tables from this paper

Echinocandins as Biotechnological Tools for Treating Candida auris Infections

Treatments focused on echinocandins’ synergism with other antifungal drugs were widely explored, representing a novel possibility for the treatment of C. auris infections.

Antifungal Chemistry Review

Development of New Strategies for Echinocandins: Progress in Translational Research.

  • T. WalshN. AzieD. Andes
  • Medicine, Biology
    Clinical infectious diseases : an official publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
  • 2015
Echinocandins are N-acyl-substituted cyclic hexapeptides with potent in vitro and in vivo activity against Candida species that are used for primary treatment and prevention of candidemia and

Echinocandins – structure, mechanism of action and use in antifungal therapy

This review summarises information about echinocandins with closer look on their chemical structure, mechanism of action, drug resistance and usage in clinical practice, and introduces actual trends in modification of this antifungals as well as new methods of their administration.

Review on Current Status of Echinocandins Use

In this review of the literature, the characteristics of echinocandins, the mechanism of their antifungal activity with pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics, and the resistance issue are summarized.

Overview of Treatment Approaches for Fungal Infections.

Current Antimycotics, New Prospects, and Future Approaches to Antifungal Therapy

This review will present a brief summary on the landscape of current antifungals and those at different stages of clinical development, and briefly touch upon potential new targets and opportunities for novelantifungal strategies to combat the threat of fungal infections.

Chromatographic methods for echinocandin antifungal drugs determination in bioanalysis.

This review concludes that the analytical methods for the quantification of echinocandins focusing on sample treatment, chromatographic separation and detection methods, mainly based on LC coupled to different detection techniques, are satisfactory.

Echinocandins for the Treatment of Invasive Aspergillosis: from Laboratory to Bedside

The present and future places of echinocandins as prophylaxis, monotherapy, or combination therapy of IA are discussed in view of the emergence of pan-azole resistance among Aspergillus fumigatus isolates, the occurrence of breakthrough IA, and the advent of new long-lasting echinOCandins (rezafungin) or other β-1,3-glucan synthase inhibitors (ibrexafungerp).

Echinocandins: Their role in the management of Candida biofilms

An overview of ANID in biofilms is provided, along with CAS and MICA, in terms of clinical efficacy, resistance development and potency, primarily against Candida spp.



Echinocandin antifungal drugs

Comparison of echinocandin antifungals

The echinocandin antifungals provide clinicians with another treatment option for serious fungal infections, and limited cases have shown a potential far activity in isolates with increased minimum inhibitory concentrations to caspofungin and micafungin.

Echinocandin Antifungal Drugs in Fungal Infections

The echinocandins are well tolerated with few serious drug-drug interactions since they are not appreciable substrates, inhibitors or inducers of the cytochrome P450 or P-glycoprotein systems.

Echinocandin pharmacodynamics: review and clinical implications.

The potential impact of dose escalations on improving the clinical efficacy of echinocandins based on in vitro and animal models are uncertain and are still being evaluated.

Glucan synthase inhibitors as antifungal agents.

The Echinocandins

The clinical response to combination therapy has been variable; however, the mortality rate appears to be lower with combination therapy than monotherapy, and large controlled trials are needed to determine the role of combination therapy for invasive aspergillosis.

Echinocandins in children.

The finding that ECs exert activity against Candida biofilms may have important therapeutic implications for the treatment of foreign body/catheter infections and current recommendations and licensure status for CA, MI, and AD are outlined.

Echinocandins--an advance in the primary treatment of invasive candidiasis.

  • T. Walsh
  • Medicine, Biology
    The New England journal of medicine
  • 2002
In patients with untreated or inadequately treated candidemia, the rate of clinically overt complications, including endophthalmitis, endocarditis, septic arthritis, and renal candidiasis, may be as high as 15 percent and may be complicated by chronic disseminated candidiasis in neutropenic hosts.

Pharmacology of Systemic Antifungal Agents

This review provides a summary of the pharmacologic principles involved in treatment of fungal diseases and suggests strategies to optimize efficacy through an understanding of pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties of the classes of antifungal compounds.

The Echinocandins: Comparison of Their Pharmacokinetics, Pharmacodynamics and Clinical Applications

Antifungal activity against strains no longer susceptible to conventional antIFungal agents, such as fluconazole and amphotericin B suggests that echinocandins can be used as salvage therapy in life-threatening fungal infections.