Eccentric exercise-induced injuries to contractile and cytoskeletal muscle fibre components.

  title={Eccentric exercise-induced injuries to contractile and cytoskeletal muscle fibre components.},
  author={Jan Frid{\'e}n and Richard L. Lieber},
  journal={Acta physiologica Scandinavica},
  volume={171 3},
Exercise involving lengthening of an activated muscle can cause injury. Recent reports documented the mechanics of exercise-induced muscle injury as well as physiological and cellular events and manifestations of injury. Loss of the cytoskeletal protein desmin and loss of cellular integrity as evidenced by sarcolemmal damage occur early during heavy eccentric exercise. These studies indicate that the earliest events in muscle injury are mechanical in nature, while later events indicate that it… 

Figures and Tables from this paper

Mechanics of Muscle Injury Induced by Lengthening Contraction

The results shows that the degree of the muscle injury is correlated to the magnitude of the passive stretch during the contraction, and Dystrophic muscles are more susceptible to contraction induced injury due to lack of DAG complex in lateral linkage.

Re-Evaluation of Sarcolemma Injury and Muscle Swelling in Human Skeletal Muscles after Eccentric Exercise

It is concluded that fibre swelling in the soleus muscle is not directly associated with the symptom of DOMS, and the prevailing hypothesis that eccentric exercise causes an initial sarcolemma injury which leads to subsequent inflammation after eccentric exercise is not supported.

Muscle fiber type diversification during exercise and regeneration.

Eccentric stimulation reveals an involvement of FGF6 in muscle resistance to mechanical stress

The absence of FGF6 causes a fast-to-slow myofibre type switch in adult control and regenerating Tibialis anterior (TA) muscle and muscle weakness in regenerating muscles in animals submitted to eccentric exercise protocols due to aberrant extensive necrotic zones.

Genetic variation and exercise-induced muscle damage: implications for athletic performance, injury and ageing

A critical analysis of the literature concerning gene polymorphisms associated with exercise-induced muscle damage, both in young and older individuals, is provided to highlight the potential mechanisms underpinning these associations, thus providing a better understanding of exercise- induced muscle damage.

Eccentric muscle contractions: their contribution to injury, prevention, rehabilitation, and sport.

The nature of the structural changes and how these adaptations may help prevent musculoskeletal injury, improve sport performance, and overcome musculOSkeletal impairments are explored.

The role of mechanobiology in progression of rotator cuff muscle atrophy and degeneration

The pathological causes and consequences of mechanical alterations at the whole muscle, muscle fiber, and muscle resident cell level as they relate to RC disease progression are highlighted.

Exercise-Induced Muscle Damage: Is it detrimental or beneficial?

Some of the detrimental effects of muscle damage are discussed and if muscle damage is needed to provide beneficial adaptations such as the repeated bout effect or muscle hypertrophy is examined.

Lengthening our perspective: Morphological, cellular, and molecular responses to eccentric exercise

The utility of using eccentric training to improve muscle function in populations of healthy and aging individuals, as well as those living with neuromuscular disorders is explored.



Injury to skeletal muscle fibers during contractions: conditions of occurrence and prevention.

Recovery from contraction-induced injury is usually complete within 30 days and repeated exposures to protocols of lengthening contractions result in "trained" muscles that are not injured by the protocol that previously caused injury.

Initial events in exercise-induced muscular injury.

  • R. Armstrong
  • Biology
    Medicine and science in sports and exercise
  • 1990
Immediately following unaccustomed exercise, particularly that with eccentric contractions, there is evidence of injury to skeletal muscle fibers: a) disruption of the normal myofilament structures in some sarcomeres and b) loss of intramuscular proteins into the plasma, indicating damage to sarcolemma.

Early events in stretch-induced muscle damage.

It is concluded that sarcomere length instabilities provide the most comprehensive explanation of the early consequences of eccentric exercise.

Ultrastructural evidence for loss of calcium homeostasis in exercised skeletal muscle.

Unique ultrastructural observations are presented that may link the loss of calcium homeostasis to initial muscle injury in rats subjected to downhill running.

Eccentric exercise-induced injury to rat skeletal muscle.

The data generally indicated that eccentric exercise causes greater injury to the muscles, and questions remain.

Segmental muscle fiber lesions after repetitive eccentric contractions

It is concluded that the following sequence of events occurs: cytoskeletal disruptions, loss of myofibrillar registry, i.e., Z-disk streaming and A-band disorganization, and loss of cell integrity as manifested by intracellular plasma fibronectin stain, hypercontracted regions, and invasion of cells.

Muscle cytoskeletal disruption occurs within the first 15 min of cyclic eccentric contraction.

Loss of desmin staining occurred in the absence of contractile or metabolic protein disruption in rabbit muscles subjected to cyclic eccentric contraction, and represents a very early structural manifestation of muscle injury during eccentric contraction.

Myofibrillar damage following intense eccentric exercise in man.

The eccentric exercise gives rise to muscles soreness and influences, on mechanical basis and selectively with regard to fiber type, the fine structure of the contractile apparatus.

Desmin knockout muscles generate lower stress and are less vulnerable to injury compared with wild-type muscles.

It is demonstrated that lack of the intermediate filament system decreases isometric stress production and that the desmin knockout muscle is less vulnerable to mechanical injury.

Mechanical factors in the initiation of eccentric contraction‐induced injury in rat soleus muscle.

The hypothesis that eccentric contraction‐induced injury is initiated by mechanical factors, with muscle tension playing the dominant role, is supported.