Eat Me or Die

  title={Eat Me or Die},
  author={John Savill and Chris Gregory and Christopher Haslett},
  pages={1516 - 1517}
During embryonic development, the sculpting of many tissues depends on waves of apoptotic cell death among different cell populations. Unfortunately, at least in higher animals with sophisticated immune systems, dying cells must be engulfed by phagocytes to prevent a massive autoimmune response. In their Perspective, [ Savill et al .][1] discuss new work ([ Li et al .][2], [ Wang et al .][3]) that identifies a key receptor expressed by macrophages, PSR, that is essential for cell corpse… 

Immunology of Apoptosis and Necrosis

A complex of reactions regulating the number of cells in organs and tissues under normal and pathologic conditions is one of the most important systems of multicellular organisms. In this system,

Macrophages in Kidney Injury and Repair

Macrophages are monocyte-derived tissue effector cells from hematopoietic stem cells in bone marrow via circulation that are activated and involved in the pathogenesis of kidney diseases.

Evaluating the Remote Control of Programmed Cell Death, with or without a Compensatory Cell Proliferation

In animals, apoptosis exterminates, in a physiological manner, healthy but no-longer needed cells to avoid cell redundancy, whereas suicidal SD and SICD, like homicidal necrosis, terminate ill but useful cells, which may be followed by regeneration of the live cells and by scar formation to heal the damaged organ or tissue.

The Drosophila TRPP Cation Channel, PKD2 and Dmel/Ced-12 Act in Genetically Distinct Pathways during Apoptotic Cell Clearance

It is proposed that PKD2 functions in the DRPR/RTP pathway to regulate calcium homeostasis during phagocytosis during this process, and appears to function in a genetically distinct pathway.

Resistance to apoptosis in Leishmania infantum-infected human macrophages: a critical role for anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 protein and cellular IAP1/2

Investigation of the role of the anti-apoptotic protein, Bcl-2, and the inhibitors of apoptosis IAP1/2 in cell death resistance showed that results clearly support the hypothesis that B cl-2 and cIAPs are strongly involved in theAnti-APoptotic action played by L. infantum in human macrophages.

Recognition and Removal of Apoptotic Cells

The general conclusion from this discussion of receptors and bridge molecules is that recognition of apoptotic cells is a highly redundant process.

Induction of apoptosis in host cells: a survival mechanism for Leishmania parasites?

Parasitic apoptotic bodies with intact membranes could be released and phagocytosed by uninfected macrophages and induction of apoptosis in the parasitized cells could actively participate in spreading the infection.

The Nuclear Receptor Nr4a1 Mediates Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Apoptotic Cells

It is shown that the phagocytosis of apoptotic thymocytes was enhanced in tissue-resident macrophages where this process resulted in the inhibition of NF-κB signaling and repression of inflammatory cytokines, such as IL-12.



Phagocyte receptors for apoptotic cells: recognition, uptake, and consequences.

The task is to understand and explain these diametrically opposed reactions to stimulation of the same receptors, which when microbial organisms or their products are engulfed via these receptors, inflammation results, and in many cases, acquired immunity is stimulated.

Phosphatidylserine Receptor Is Required for Clearance of Apoptotic Cells

A critical role for PSR in early stages of mammalian organogenesis is demonstrated and it is suggested that this receptor may be involved in respiratory distress syndromes and congenital brain malformations.

Cell Corpse Engulfment Mediated by C. elegans Phosphatidylserine Receptor Through CED-5 and CED-12

It is reported that psr-1, the Caenorhabditis elegans homolog of PSR, is important for cell corpse engulfment and suggests that PSR-1 is likely an upstream receptor for the signaling pathway containing CED-2, C ED-5,CED-10, and CED -12 proteins and plays an important role in recognizing phosphatidylserine during phagocytosis.

A blast from the past: clearance of apoptotic cells regulates immune responses

Apoptosis, which is a programmed and physiological form of cell death, is known to shape the immune system by regulating populations of effector lymphocytes. However, the binding and ingestion of

Phagocytosis triggers macrophage release of Fas ligand and induces apoptosis of bystander leukocytes.

The hitherto unrecognized existence of a feedback loop requiring soluble factors in addition to sFasL that may promote resolution of inflammation-phagocytic clearance of apoptotic cells leading to Fas-mediated killing of bystander leukocytes by phagocytizing macrophages is suggested.