East Pacific Rise: Hot Springs and Geophysical Experiments

  title={East Pacific Rise: Hot Springs and Geophysical Experiments},
  author={Fred Noel Spiess and Ken C. Macdonald and Tanya M. Atwater and R. D. Ballard and A. Carranza and Diego C{\'o}rdoba and Christopher Cox and V M Garcia and Jean Francheteau and Jose C. Guerrero and Joe Hawkins and Rachel Michal Haymon and Robert R. Hessler and Thierry Juteau and Miriam Kastner and Roger L. Larson and B. P. Luyendyk and J. Douglas Macdougall and S. P. Miller and W. R. Normark and J. O. Orcutt and Claude Rangin},
  pages={1421 - 1433}
Hydrothermal vents jetting out water at 380� � 30�C have been discovered on the axis of the East Pacific Rise. The hottest waters issue from mineralized chimneys and are blackened by sulfide precipitates. These hydrothermal springs are the sites of actively forming massive sulfide mineral deposits. Cooler springs are clear to milky and support exotic benthic communities of giant tube worms, clams, and crabs similar to those found at the Gal�pagos spreading center. Four prototype geophysical… 
Input from the deep: Hot vents and cold seeps
The discovery of black smokers, massive sulfides and vent biota at the crest of the East Pacific Rise at 21°N in 1979 (Francheteau et al. 1979, Spiess et al. 1980) confirmed that the formation of new
Discovery of Hydrothermal Vent Fields on Alarcón Rise and in Southern Pescadero Basin, Gulf of California
Hydrothermal vent fields located in the gap between known sites in Guaymas Basin and 21°N on the East Pacific Rise were discovered on the Alarcón Rise and in southern Pescadero Basin. The Alarcón
Loihi Seamount, Hawaii: a mid-plate volcano with a distinctive hydrothermal system
The initial discovery of deep-sea hydrothermal vents at the Galapagos Rift1,2 has resulted in a decade of exploration and experimentation. Subsequent discoveries in the Pacific3–8 and Atlantic9 ocean
Fundamental Characteristics of Hydrothermal Submarine Systems and Preliminary Evaluation of its Geothermal Potential in Mexico
Hydrothermal submarine reservoirs contain essentially an infinite energy potential. Seafloor hydrothermal circulation is the principal agent of energy and mass transfer from the Earth=s crust to the
Discovery of active off-axis hydrothermal vents at 9° 54'N East Pacific Rise.
Comprehensive knowledge of the distribution of active hydrothermal vent fields along midocean ridges is essential to understanding global chemical and heat fluxes and endemic faunal distributions.
The potential hydrothermal systems unexplored in the Southwest Indian Ocean
Deep-sea hydrothermal vents possess complex ecosystems and abundant metallic mineral deposits valuable to human being. On-axial vents along tectonic plate boundaries have achieved prominent results


Hydrothermal plumes in the Galapagos Rift
ALTHOUGH there is indirect evidence that a major fraction of the heat loss from newly-created lithosphere occurs by convection of seawater through the porous crust1–3, it has proved difficult to
East Pacific Rise Crest: A Near-Bottom Geophysical Profile
A deep-towed magnetometer profile made across the East Pacific Rise crest shows many anomalies with about 1000-gamma amplitudes and 500-meter wavelengths and has larger amplitude changes
Near-Bottom Geologic Studies of the East Pacific Rise Crest
A survey with near-bottom instruments was made over a 15 km by 25 km area of the East Pacific Rise crest at the mouth of the Gulf of California. The survey lines were positioned to an accuracy of
Massive deep-sea sulphide ore deposits discovered on the East Pacific Rise
Massive ore-grade zinc, copper and iron sulphide deposits have been found at the axis of the East Pacific Rise. Although their presence on the deep ocean-floor had been predicted there was no
Submarine Thermal Springs on the Gal�pagos Rift
It is suggested that two-thirds of the heat lost from new oceanic lithosphere at the Gal�pagos Rift in the first million years may be vented from thermal springs, predominantly along the axial ridge within the rift valley.
The Galapagos Spreading Centre: A Near-Bottom Geophysical Survey
Summary A near-bottom geophysical survey of the Galapagos spreading centre at 86"W shows the highly lineated nature of oceanic crust generated at a fastspreading ridge. The bathymetric relief is
Iron-Rich Basal Sediments from the Eastern Equatorial Pacific: Leg 16, Deep Sea Drilling Project
Iron-rich sediments chemically similar to those forming at present on the crest of the East Pacific Rise have been found just above basement at widely separated drill sites in the eastern equatorial
Compositional variations of young basalts in the Mid-Atlantic Ridge rift valley near lat 36°49′N
Fifty acoustically positioned samples of fresh basalt were collected by the submersible Alvin from the median valley of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge during the French American Mid-Ocean Undersea Study