Earthquake forewarning — A multidisciplinary challenge from the ground up to space

@article{Freund2013EarthquakeF,
  title={Earthquake forewarning — A multidisciplinary challenge from the ground up to space},
  author={Friedemann T. Freund},
  journal={Acta Geophysica},
  year={2013},
  volume={61},
  pages={775-807}
}
Most destructive earthquakes nucleate at between 5–7 km and about 35–40 km depth. Before earthquakes, rocks are subjected to increasing stress. Not every stress increase leads to rupture. To understand pre-earthquake phenomena we note that igneous and high-grade metamorphic rocks contain defects which, upon stressing, release defect electrons in the oxygen anion sublattice, known as positive holes. These charge carriers are highly mobile, able to flow out of stressed rocks into surrounding… CONTINUE READING

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