Earth's energy imbalance and implications

  title={Earth's energy imbalance and implications},
  author={James E. Hansen and Makiko Sato and Pushker A. Kharecha and Karina von Schuckmann Nasa Goddard Institute for Space Studies and Columbia Univ. Earth Institute and Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique},
  journal={Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics},
Abstract. Improving observations of ocean heat content show that Earth is absorbing more energy from the Sun than it is radiating to space as heat, even during the recent solar minimum. The inferred planetary energy imbalance, 0.58 ± 0.15 W m −2 during the 6-yr period 2005–2010, confirms the dominant role of the human-made greenhouse effect in driving global climate change. Observed surface temperature change and ocean heat gain together constrain the net climate forcing and ocean mixing rates… 

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    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
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