Early modern human settlement of Europe north of the Alps occurred 43,500 years ago in a cold steppe-type environment.

@article{Nigst2014EarlyMH,
  title={Early modern human settlement of Europe north of the Alps occurred 43,500 years ago in a cold steppe-type environment.},
  author={Philip R. Nigst and Paul Haesaerts and Freddy Damblon and Christa Frank-Fellner and Carolina Mallol and B. Viola and Michael G{\"o}tzinger and Laura Niven and Gerhard Trnka and Jean-Jacques Hublin},
  journal={Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America},
  year={2014},
  volume={111 40},
  pages={
          14394-9
        }
}
The first settlement of Europe by modern humans is thought to have occurred between 50,000 and 40,000 calendar years ago (cal B.P.). In Europe, modern human remains of this time period are scarce and often are not associated with archaeology or originate from old excavations with no contextual information. Hence, the behavior of the first modern humans in Europe is still unknown. Aurignacian assemblages--demonstrably made by modern humans--are commonly used as proxies for the presence of fully… CONTINUE READING
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