Early human use of marine resources and pigment in South Africa during the Middle Pleistocene

  title={Early human use of marine resources and pigment in South Africa during the Middle Pleistocene},
  author={C. Marean and M. Bar-Matthews and Jocelyn Bernatchez and E. Fisher and P. Goldberg and A. Herries and Z. Jacobs and A. Jerardino and P. Karkanas and T. Minichillo and P. Nilssen and E. Thompson and Ian Watts and Hope M. Williams},
Genetic and anatomical evidence suggests that Homo sapiens arose in Africa between 200 and 100 thousand years (kyr) ago, and recent evidence indicates symbolic behaviour may have appeared ∼135–75 kyr ago. From 195–130 kyr ago, the world was in a fluctuating but predominantly glacial stage (marine isotope stage MIS6); much of Africa was cooler and drier, and dated archaeological sites are rare. Here we show that by ∼164 kyr ago (±12 kyr) at Pinnacle Point (on the south coast of South Africa… Expand

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