Early human use of marine resources and pigment in South Africa during the Middle Pleistocene

  title={Early human use of marine resources and pigment in South Africa during the Middle Pleistocene},
  author={Curtis W. Marean and Miryam Bar-Matthews and Jocelyn Bernatchez and Erich C. Fisher and Paul Goldberg and Andy I. R. Herries and Zenobia Jacobs and Antonieta Jerardino and Panagiotis Karkanas and Thomas J. Minichillo and Peter J. Nilssen and Erin Thompson and Ian Watts and Hope M. Williams},
Genetic and anatomical evidence suggests that Homo sapiens arose in Africa between 200 and 100 thousand years (kyr) ago, and recent evidence indicates symbolic behaviour may have appeared ∼135–75 kyr ago. From 195–130 kyr ago, the world was in a fluctuating but predominantly glacial stage (marine isotope stage MIS6); much of Africa was cooler and drier, and dated archaeological sites are rare. Here we show that by ∼164 kyr ago (±12 kyr) at Pinnacle Point (on the south coast of South Africa… 
Innovative Homo sapiens behaviours 105,000 years ago in a wetter Kalahari.
It is shown that early human innovations similar to those dated to around 105 thousand years ago (ka) in coastal southern Africa existed at around the same time among humans who lived over 600 km inland, and that these innovations may have developed within a wet savannah environment.
Middle and late Pleistocene faunas of Pinnacle Point and their paleoecological implications.
Marine mollusc exploitation in Mediterranean prehistory: An overview
Coastal Diet, Encephalization, and Innovative Behaviors in the Late Middle Stone Age of Southern Africa
Some 35 years ago, Desmond Clark (1975) predicted that Africa was in the process of moving from peripheral to paramount in the narrative of human evolution. Nowhere has this been more dramatically
The success of failed Homo sapiens dispersals out of Africa and into Asia
  • R. Rabett
  • Environmental Science, Geography
    Nature Ecology & Evolution
  • 2017
This Perspective reviews the current evidence for a scenario where the MIS-5 dispersal encompassed a much greater geographic distribution and temporal duration and the validity of measuring dispersal success only through genetic continuity into the present is examined.
Initial Investigations into the Exploitation of Coastal Resources in North Africa During the Late Pleistocene at Grotte Des Contrebandiers, Morocco
While there has long been an interest in Holocene coastal adaptations globally (see other papers in this volume and Erlandson 2001), only more recently has attention focused on marine resource
Neanderthal surf and turf
Did our closest relatives adapt to the sea in the same way as early Homo sapiens? Humans share a deep bond with coasts and oceans. More than 500 million people live in coastal communities, and


Early human occupation of the Red Sea coast of Eritrea during the last interglacial
The discovery of early Middle Stone Age artefacts in an emerged reef terrace on the Red Sea coast of Eritrea are reported, which are date to the last interglacial using U–Th mass spectrometry techniques on fossil corals, which supports an African origin for modern humans by 125 kyr ago.
Levallois Lithic Technology from the Kapthurin Formation, Kenya: Acheulian Origin and Middle Stone Age Diversity
The earliest fossils of Homo sapiens are reported from in Africa in association with both late Acheulian and Middle Stone Age (MSA) artifacts. The relation between the origin of our species during
Stratigraphic placement and age of modern humans from Kibish, Ethiopia
The preferred estimate of the age of the Kibish hominids is 195 ± 5 kyr, making them the earliest well-dated anatomically modern humans yet described, and close to the older limit of Mediterranean sapropels.
Middle Paleolithic Shell Beads in Israel and Algeria
Perforated marine gastropod shells at the western Asian site of Skhul and the North African site of Oued Djebbana indicate the early use of beads by modern humans in these regions. The remoteness of
Tephrostratigraphy and the Acheulian to middle stone age transition in the Kapthurin Formation, Kenya.
The results indicate that the transition to Middle Stone Age technology occurred prior to 285 ka in this region of East Africa, indicating that these technologies were contemporary in a single depositional basin over the duration of the transition.
Ochre in the Middle Stone Age of Southern Africa: Ritualised Display or Hide Preservative?
Symbolic and utilitarian interpretations have been proposedfor red ochre use in the African Middle Stone Age, but these have rarely been developed. . This paper reviews the hypotheses, recasts them
Brain-specific lipids from marine, lacustrine, or terrestrial food resources: potential impact on early African Homo sapiens.
Sea-level and deep water temperature changes derived from benthic foraminifera isotopic records
We show that robust regressions can be established between relative sea-level (RSL) data and benthic foraminifera oxygen isotopic ratios from the North Atlantic and Equatorial Pacific Ocean over the