Early evidence for symbolic behavior in the Levantine Middle Paleolithic: A 120 ka old engraved aurochs bone shaft from the open-air site of Nesher Ramla, Israel

  title={Early evidence for symbolic behavior in the Levantine Middle Paleolithic: A 120 ka old engraved aurochs bone shaft from the open-air site of Nesher Ramla, Israel},
  author={Marion Pr{\'e}vost and Iris Groman-Yaroslavski and Kathryn M. Crater Gershtein and Jos{\'e}-Miguel Tejero and Yossi Zaidner},
  journal={Quaternary International},

A 51,000-year-old engraved bone reveals Neanderthals' capacity for symbolic behaviour.

The discovery of an at least 51,000-year-old engraved giant deer phalanx found at the former cave entrance of Einhornhöhle, northern Germany shows that Neanderthals were capable of creating symbolic expressions before H. sapiens arrived in Central Europe.

New insights into the Upper Palaeolithic of the Caucasus through the study of personal ornaments. Teeth and bones pendants from Satsurblia and Dzudzuana caves (Imereti, Georgia)

This study presents an archaeozoological, technological and use-wear study of pendants from two local UP assemblages, originating in the Dzudzuana Cave and Satsurblia Cave, revealing that they are quite similar, supporting the observation of cultural bonds between the two regions.

Neural correlates of perceiving and interpreting engraved prehistoric patterns as human production: Effect of archaeological expertise

The attribution of a natural rather than human origin to the marks elicited greater activity in the salience network in both groups, reflecting the uncertainty and ambiguity in the perception of, and decision-making for, natural patterns.

Expansion of eastern Mediterranean Middle Paleolithic into the desert region in early marine isotopic stage 5

Marine Isotopic Stage 5 is associated with wetter climatic conditions in the Saharo-Arabian deserts. This stage also corresponds to the establishment of Middle Paleolithic hominins and their

Language, Childhood, and Fire: How We Learned to Love Sharing Stories

  • G. Lauer
  • Psychology
    Frontiers in Psychology
  • 2021
Stories do not fossilize. Thus, exploring tales shared during prehistory, the longest part of human history inevitably becomes speculative. Nevertheless, various attempts have been made to find a

Thinking Tools: Gestures Change Thought About Time

The focus here is gesture; gestures transform actions on perceptible objects to actions on imagined thoughts, carrying meaning with them rapidly, precisely, and directly, thereby creating cognitive tools that expand the mind.

To be or not to be: reassessing the origins of portable art in the Cantabrian Region (Northern Spain)

The characterization of the first portable artistic depictions in Cantabrian Spain is crucial for comprehension of the symbolic development of Neandertals and Homo sapiens in the context of the



Assessing the significance of Palaeolithic engraved cortexes. A case study from the Mousterian site of Kiik-Koba, Crimea

Results of the analysis of an engraved cortical flint flake found at Kiik-Koba, a key Mousterian site from Crimea, are presented and an interpretative framework is created to guide the interpretation of incised cortexes.

Chapter 4. Middle Stone Age engravings and their significance to the debate on the emergence of symbolic material culture

Archaeological evidence associated with modern cognitive abilities provides important insights into when and where modern human behaviour emerged. Modern human behaviour here means the thoughts and

Convergent Evidence of Eagle Talons Used by Late Neanderthals in Europe: A Further Assessment on Symbolism

This work presents new evidence of the deliberate removal of raptor claws occurred in Mediterranean Europe during the recent phases of the Mousterian, and explains that the deliberate detachment occurred without damaging the claw.

The Emergence of Ornaments and Art: An Archaeological Perspective on the Origins of “Behavioral Modernity”

The earliest known personal ornaments come from the Middle Stone Age of southern Africa, c. 75,000 years ago, and are associated with anatomically modern humans. In Europe, such items are not

New insights into early MIS 5 lithic technological behavior in the Levant: Nesher Ramla, Israel as a case study

The lithic data from Unit III of Nesher Ramla is used in inter-site comparisons suggesting that the mid-Middle Paleolithic sites in the Near East possess common technological characteristics, especially the use of the centripetal Levallois method as predominant reduction strategy.

Symbolic or utilitarian? Juggling interpretations of Neanderthal behavior: new inferences from the study of engraved stone surfaces.

Different categories of finds reveal how Neanderthals have manifested at different moments behaviors not ascribable to the utilitarian sphere, but to the aesthetic or symbolic, which are grounds to continue the debate regarding the emergence of complex behavior.